Thursday, February 28, 2019
As a citizen of a republican country, we depend too much in our newspapers, magazines, tabloids and all kinds of media for development, generally because almost everything is sh testify in it, we dont unconstipated hunch whether it is true or not, scarce because this is our flow of society we accept in it. But isnt it invading our privacy? And our honest to bouncy in credential? This is journalism the science of ruining or construct lives. But primarily its purpose is to expose certain neverthelessts, critical issues and mainly the lives of bulk, their private lives that they dont want former(a) bulk to know, the hyperbolise tales and the gradual destruction of ones life.It is like showing your railroad cards in a poker game without you knowing it, people taking advantage of it and utilize it against you. Look at the Valerie Plame s washbasindal. After her c arer has been ruined by exposing her personal identity as a CIA agent, saying that she catch leaked some inf ormation as an intelligence officer and making herself a public icon by showing herself in the front page of vanity fair other magazines and newspapers, professional journalists just took off the scene after the case impart been dismissed instead of clearing their mistakes.Another example is the paparazzi, they even off honor lives really difficult and stock-still drive some of them to their deaths because of the stories that they fabricate, the pictures that they took, the private stories and pictures that shouldnt be known by the public which creates an even more focusing and pressure on them. Just like what happen to Princess Diana, who died because of a car accident in Paris, France collectible to the never ending chase of the paparazzi.In the war between US and Iraq, the progress of the US was certain, the US was loth(p) to stop the attacks though the Iraq parliament appealed for a month long fetch up of attack, what do the media do? They ignored all the press releases o f Iraq and launched a appall and Awe campaign to expose and insult the Iraq parliament, making the situation worse. As what Lt. Col.Oliver North verbalize that the media wont make them (military troops) safe in the war that has been going on in Iraq, and he in addition said that it has become a weapon which attacks Iraq that supports the medias claim that our commonwealth has win its limits. Freedom in every little way has also its limitations, though we beat equal rights and some regard that its the journalist right to do his job, I do also believe that independence, our noble rights meets its limits when we are actually hurting somebody because of our so called freedom of expression.Journalism, for the sake of its lay down creates not only destruction of lives but also of believes and relationship. Little by little, journalism is slowly ignoring our freedom of privacy, it cares for nothing except a easily story, an interesting story that whitethorn destroy a life, it ca res for no one, it exposes everything without even thinking the results of such act and mainly some of stories are overdone to give it a more interesting twist.Privacy is an experience that people should have the luxury of using, it is not a physical composition of data that we can tell everybody whenever we want to, we live in a democratic country, with democratic rights and equal opportunity, we must let everybody have their own piece of security as we do, who would want to live in a world where everything is overt and there is nothing that you can keep to your self? I wouldnt and I think no one would want that because if so, why would the regime create liberal policy? Why do we want to have security?Journalism is really powerful, it can manipulate us in every way that it wants, it can even made us believe the things that they say which may and may not be absolutely true, it also create a world of doubts, where we no longer know whether this piece of information is reliable or n ot, is it true or is it just a fraud? The word fair is not in its vocabulary and even love. Exposing everything that creates interest to them and to the people, every thing will be exposed with or without consent, launching stories that shouldnt be known by the public that may cause trouble not only to them but also to the needy people around.Like when they publicize the American Iraqi war, when they follow people around etc. Isnt this a clear violation of liberal rights? We must be skeptic of everything that we are told, because we are critical beings, we have our brain enlarged and neurons to use in such cases, we have our own set of opinion, let us become non-conformist and stop the inevitable victimization of journalism in destroying our liberal rights.Whats the use of liberal democracy if we would allow this journalism to uncover every little piece of information about us? Journalism is like a disease run in every hole in our liberal rights, it is a cancer, a malignant one that we cant seem to fight easily, but it is possible, Im not saying that journalism only has disadvantages, we know that everything has two sides yet as we weigh their cons and pros we should know that it is slowly putting to death our democratic rights as a person and as citizen of this country.Let us prove that we value our freedom more than the interesting stories that this journalist made, let us have a world where there is security and freedom to have a private life that every one of us should deserve. Cure the disease that slowly deteriorates the country and make it a buns where there will be no lives that are ruined due to exaggerated stories and expose that the media and journalists made. This is a free country, yet freedom in order to remain real should be handed down not only to those who can afford it but to everybody in this nation and in every nation around the world.Journalism should limit their scope and make our lives easier. Stop the exploitation and the lies, jou rnalism must be honest and it should respect our liberal rights so as to avoid misunderstanding and destruction.Works cited Connors, Michael. Howards Australia The Democratic Paradox. 19 April 2006. August 21 2007. http//www. newmatilda. com/home/articledetail. asp? ArticleID=1510 Leiby, Richard. Valerie Plame, the spy Who Got Shoved Out Into the Cold . Saturday, October 29, 2005 Page C01. Aug. 20 2007 http//www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/28/AR2005102801172.html
CHAPTER 5ACCOUNTING FOR GENERAL CAPITAL ASSETS AND CAPITAL PROJECTS OUTLINE NumberTopicType/T craveStatus (re 13/e) Questions 5-1Distinguishing general gravid assets from fund chapiter letter letter assetsDescribeNew 5-2Capital asset disclosuresExplainNew 5-3Modified allowanceler for homeDescribeNew 5-4Capital submit account statementDescribe5-8 revise 5-5Asset traumaExplainNew 5-6Use of crownwork projects notesExplain5-4 revised 5-7EncumbrancesExplainSame 5-8Construction work in progressExplainNew 5-9Multiple capital projectsExplainSame 5-10Special opinion capital projectsExplainNew Cases 5-1Modified uprise for infrastructure assetsEvaluate, write5-2 5-2Options for backing public infrastructureEvaluate, explainNew 5-3Political versus frugal factors in finance capital improvementsEvaluate, explain5-1 retitled Exercises/Problems 5-1Examine the CAFRExamine5-1 revised 5-2VariousMultiple Choice5-2 revised 5-3General capital assetsJournal EntriesSame 5-4Capital asset di sclosure statementFinancial Statement5-4 revised 5-5Lease classification and accountingCalculate JEsNew -6Asset impairmentJEs ReportingNew 5-7Special sound judgement financingJEs and Explain5-6 revised 5-8Statement of revenues and use of goods and servicessCompute FS5-5 5-9Construction fundJEs & FS5-7 revised 5-10Capital project transactionsJEs & FS5-8 revised CHAPTER 5ACCOUNTING FOR GENERAL CAPITAL ASSETS AND CAPITAL PROJECTS Answers to Questions 5-1. General capital assets atomic number 18 those that atomic number 18 acquired with the resources of governmental funds and that are reported tot some(prenominal)y in the Governmental Activities column of the government-wide monetary statements.Capital assets acquired with the resources of proprietary or fiducial funds are reported in the fiscal statements of those funds, as substanti everyy as in the Business-type Activities column of the government-wide financial statements for enterprise fund capital assets. 5-2. Capital asse t disclosures required by the GASB are quite tumefy illustrated by the City and County of Denvers capital asset disclosures shown in Illustration 5-2.In brief, the disclosures should include policies for capitalizing assets and for estimating the useful lives of depreciable assets. In addition, the disclosures should include (1) beginning-of- family and end-of-year balances showing accumulated depreciation separate from historical cost, (2) capital acquisitions during the year, (3) sales or assorted dispositions during the year, (4) depreciation cost showing amounts charged to for each one function in the statement of activities, and (5) disclosures regarding collections of art or historical treasures. -3. The modified come along permits a government an alternative to depreciation of certain eligible infrastructure assets. suitable assets are parts of major communicates of infrastructure assets or subsystems of ne devilrks, where a network might be a highway system, for e xample. If the government meets two requirements it arsehole avoid account depreciation on its eligible infrastructure assets.The two requirements are (1) oversight of eligible infrastructure assets using a management system that includes an up-to-date inventory of eligible assets, condition assessments and results using a measurement scale, and estimates of annual costs to maintain assets at the established and disclose condition level, and (2) documentation that the assets are being preserved at or above the established condition level. If the government fails to maintain the assets at or above the established condition level, it must(prenominal) revert to reporting depreciation for its nfrastructure assets and discontinue use of the modified approach. 5-4. If the lease meets one or much of the FASB SFAS 13 criteria for a capital lease, as discussed in this chapter, the lease must be reported as a capital lease. If the lease is deemed to be a capital lease, the governmental fund journal immersion on the date of inception entrust include a debit to Expenditures and a Credit to Other financial backing SourcesCapital Lease Agreements.The journal entry at the government-wide level will be the same as that use in business accountinga debit to Equipment and a mention to Capital Lease Obligations Payable. Ch. 5, Answers (Contd) 5-5. Disagree. GASBS 42 requires the government to assess assets for which value might form become impaired. If impairment is judged to have occurred, therefore the amount of impairment loss must be estimated using one of the approaches described in GASBS 42. The amount of loss will be recorded as an expense of the appropriate function or program and as a diminution in the carrying value of the asset. -6. The use of a capital projects fund is unremarkably required for major construction projects requiring heavy(p) amounts of financing. The use of a capital projects fund may also be useful for purchases of high-cost items muc h(prenominal) as acquisitions of land, buildings, and high-cost equipment. A capital projects fund must also be use whenever required by law or grant provisions. 5-7. To facilitate provision of financial statements at the end of the fiscal year, all operating and budgetary accounts should be closed, including Encumbrances.However, since the project is still underway and contractual commitments still hold up to buckle under contractors when billed, it is essential that Encumbrances be reestablished at the beginning of the next year in order to maintain budgetary control over dandy commitments. 5-8. All ordinary and necessary costs to construct the asset are appropriately reported as construction work in progress. This includes all legal costs, engineering and architectural services, site preparation, materials used, and billings from contractors, among other items.Interest incurred during construction is not capitalized for general capital assets, however. Construction Work in Pr ogress is appoint in the ledger for governmental activities at the government-wide level for general capital assets, and not in the ledger for the capital projects fund. In the capital projects fund, all capitalizable items are debited to Construction Expenditures. 5-9. For a multiple-projects fund, encumbrances and construction expenditures should be identified in a manner that will indicate to which project each applies.This groundwork be accomplished by adding a project identifier to the Encumbrances and Construction Expenditures accounts, such as Encumbrances? Street Project or Construction Expenditures? Project no(prenominal) 10. Identifying encumbrances and expenditures by project facilitates comparisons to budget for particular projects and presentation of cash and expenditure statements for multi-project operations. For example, the City of Smithville Continuous Computerized Problem that accompanies this text has two capital projects funds named the Springer Street Projec t and the Alzmann Street Project. 5-10.Capital projects fund accounting for excess assessments is virtually identical in both of these situations. The only difference is that the assign entry for issuance of finicky assessment bonds is to Other Financing Sources division from Property Owners if the government assumes no responsibility for the debt, rather than to Other Financing SourcesProceeds of Special Assessment Bonds with Governmental Commitment. Solutions to Cases 5-1. a. Discuss with students various methods of obtaining financial statements and getting benchmark data to make comparisons across entities.Professional associations such as the Government Finance Officers Association, National Association of State Auditors, Controllers and Treasurers, and Association of trail Business Officials publish best practices for various areas of public finance, accounting, and financial reporting. Since each student will have a distinct list of cities, ask them to compare their resu lts with other students and look for patterns in which types and sizes of governments make similar choices in accounting methods, particularly, in this case, regarding choice of infrastructure asset accounting methods. . An cardinal communication skill for students to master is to convey technical financial accounting information in an effective way so that decision makers muster the information useful for making informed decisions. You may wish to ask students to show their memo or essay to a finance theatre director of a city and get their opinion about whether the student has captured the key issues relating to infrastructure and communicated it in a professional and informative manner. c.During the implementation age of GASBS 34, the GFOA and some state auditors released policy statements indicating to governments that they did not have to capitalize infrastructure assets to meet minimum standards for the GFOAs Certificate of Achievement for Excellence in Financial Reportin g or the states reporting compliance regulations. Despite such statements, most governments that sought a clean audit opinion voluntarily developed inventories of infrastructure and followed GAAP for infrastructure reporting.For most general resolve governments, omitting infrastructure assets would cause their statement of net assets to be materially misstated resulting in a qualified or adverse audit opinion in all likelihood the latter. A government receiving an adverse audit opinion may insure a downgrading of its bond rating and thus face considerably higher(prenominal) cost of borrowing. 5-2a. Option (1), the sales revenue approach, offers the advantage of spreading the charge up for infrastructure improvements across a larger number of evaluatepayers, including many non-residents who blabber or shop in Desert City.From an equity standpoint, the sales valuate approach has appeal because infrastructure improvements enhance the city for visitors and shoppers, as well(p) as for residents. Disadvantages of this approach are the necessity of scheduling and conducting a special election and the political risk of advocating for a measure increase. Option (2), the maturement fee approach, has the advantage of being relatively invisible to the public and cost-effective to administer since the number of developers will be relatively small.Although real acres developers can be expected to pass the development fee to in the altogether homeowners and businesses, property values may be increased by compound infrastructure (e. g. , modify streets and highways, adequate storm drainage, and so forth). As a result, taxpayers may recoup a portion of the development fee. The main loss is the potential inequity of the development Ch. 5, Solutions, Case 5-2 (Contd) fee since a relatively high financial burden is imposed on fresh homeowners and new businesses for infrastructure expansion and improvement that may substantially benefit the perfect city.A city co uncil member may choose the development fee approach since it holds less political risk than asking residents to approve a tax increase. The city manager may prefer the sales tax approach as retail sales may be less inconstant than new construction, which can be strongly impacted by the local, regional, and guinea pig economies. Since the city manager is responsible for ensuring that infrastructure stays abreast of creation and new development, he or she may prefer a more(prenominal) stable source of infrastructure financing.Current homeowners and businesses might be expected to prefer the development fee approach since those fees would not directly impact on their property and would place the incidence of the tax on others. It would be strike if new homeowners or new businesses favored the development fee approach as they would probably view it as inequitable. b. Accounting and financial reporting would be minimally impacted by which option is ultimately chosen. both way, in that location is revenue to be recognized in a capital projects fund (a tax in one case and development fee in the other).Accounting for infrastructure construction would not be affected by the source of financing. 5-3. a. Regardless of how a student voted, he or she had plentitude of company. With a record voter turnout for such an election, the half-cent sales tax was barely approved. Only 51. 7 percent of the voters in Brown County voted for the tax. As expected, 56. 5 percent of the voters in the City of Brownville voted against it. Except for a a couple of(prenominal) precincts in other cities and towns, voters outside Brownville voted overwhelmingly in support of the tax.While there is no pay answer to this question, each student should have provided a rationale similar to one of the arguments provided in the case. A few students may develop unique arguments in support of their vote. Generally, the students who voted for the proposed tax must have thought the county-wide b enefits of improved roads and bridges were worth the extra tax costs and outweighed the possible detrimental effects on the Citys financial flexibility.Those who voted against it presumably did so using the rationale expressed by some voters in exit polls, why should I pay more for roads that will benefit rural county residents more than me. b. Although some students may profess an unselfish motivation for their vote, most are expected to reflect economic rationality. That is, they would plausibly vote for the sales tax increase if they were an owner of a large commercial or manufacturing property, and would therefore realize a net economic benefit from the property tax rollback and sales tax increase.Even then some students may justify the yes vote on the basis of the county-wide benefits of improved infrastructure rather than their financial self-interest. Ch. 5, Solutions, Case 5-3 (Contd) c. Again, there is no right answer to this question. Students (Brownville voters) who vo ted against the tax probably would get by that residents who primarily benefit should pay for the improvements (i. e. , special assessment financing should have been used). Those who voted for the tax probably would argue that the broader (county-wide) economic benefits of improved county infrastructure justifies inancial support by all county residents. round who voted for the tax may have preferred special assessment financing but possibly feared that failure to approve the sales tax would reprobate the needed improvements altogether. d. The Countys procedures for accounting for the financing and the capital projects activities will differ about for the option approved by the voters compared with those that would have been used if special assessment financing had been used.But, as explained in Chapter 5, the procedures for accounting for special assessment-financed capital projects are quite similar to those for other capital projects, especially when, as is very much the cas e, the government is committed in some manner for repaying debt issued for the project. Since bond financing is typically used for special assessment capital projects, accounting for both special assessment taxes and debt service would have been required for an extended period, probably ten years or more.Whether these differences would be termed significant accounting issues is a matter of conjecture they might be considered significant by the financial staff of the County. Solutions to Exercises and Problems 5-1. Each student will have a different annual report, so he or she will have different answers to questions in this exercise. The various kinds of capital assets and capital projects, wide variety of financing mechanisms, and different accounting policies used in and by governments should generate elicit classroom discussions. 5-2. 1. a. 6. c. 2. d. 7. d. 3. c. 8. c. 4. a 9. a. 5. b. 10. c.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
branding Meaning of branding The enunciate brand is derived from the Old Norse brandr meaning to burn. It refers to the practice of producers burning their objective (or brand) onto their products. Branding is the practice of giving a specified name to a product or group of product of one vender. Branding is the surgery of finding and fixing the means of identification. In other word, naming product, same(p) a naming a baby, is known as stigmatization. P bents have children and manufactures alike argon eager to know the character and the capacity of their names. Thus stigmatization is management process by which product is name i. . branding. Proper branding rotter result in higher sales of not and one product, but on other products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Wai Wai Noodles and trusts the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the gild such as Kwiks Cheese Balls or Kwiks Potato Chips. Definition of Branding Ac cording to the American marketing Association, A brand is name, term, sign, symbol or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition. According to William j Stanton, All trademarks ar brands and thus include the word, letter or numbers which may be pronounced they may also include pictorial designs. Threes of Cs of Branding 1. Clarity loyal bonds ar vindicated about what they are & what they are not. They understand their unique promise of value. And this promise of value sets them apart from their competitors. It differentiates them and allows them to tie and built loyalty among a desirable set of consumers. 2.Consistency In plus to being clear about who they are, strong brands are also consistence. They are always what they say they are. 3. Constancy It is not enough to be clear and consistent if you are not always visible to your target audition. Strong brands are cons tant, they are always there for their customers and prospects. A brand can convey up to six level of meaning 1. Attributes Mercedes brings to mind expensive, surface built, well engineered, durable, high prestige automobiles. 2.Benefits The attributes Durable could translate into the functional benefits and the attributes big-ticket(prenominal) translates into the emotional benefits. 3. Values Mercedes stands for high performance, safety and prestige. 4. Culture Mercedes represents German gloss organized, efficient and high quality. 5. ainity Mercedes may suggest a no nonsense boss person, reigning lion animal or an austere palace (object). 6. User Suggest the kind of consumer who buys or uses the product. A top executive behind the wheel of a Mercedes and not a young secretary.Purpose of Branding 1. Brand is a massive asset. 2. Brand is a promotional tool. 3. Brand is a weapon to protect market. 4. Brand is antidote for middle man survival. 5. Brand is a means of identificatio n for customers. logical implication/advantage of branding 1. Advantage to producers a. Easy to advertise. b. Easy to identify the products. c. mental institution of separate market. d. To get more price. e. Easy to expand the product mix. f. Personal contacts with consumers. 2. Advantage to middle man g. Easy to understand needs and wants of consumers. . little risks. i. No need of advertisement and sales promotion. j. adjoin in sales. k. Increase in profit. 3. Advantage to consumers l. Easy to recognize. m. Availability of quality product. n. Minimum version in price. o. Mental satisfaction. p. Improve packing. Branding decision Branding of products are mainly done under following criteria 1. Founders names. 2. mantel family names. 3. Separate family name for all products. 4. Corporate names combined with psyche product name.
To come up with a decision to the whether enter the great chinaware Market or non we decided to approach the caseful with a SWOT analysis. Strengths NutraSweet is an artificial sweetener that is one of the most recognize brand names in the United States and in the world. NutraSweets wages per share is $ 6. 36 and with huge capitalization and investments in diverse outputs. Stacey has the pass budget of $ 500,000 to market NutraSweet in China.NutraSweet has the flexibility on how to position their harvesting in terms of functionality, or either as sugar taciturnity or wellness product for diabetics. Weaknesses The research conducted towards the Chinese consumers may non truly reflect the real sentiments of the consumers towards NutraSweet. NutraSweet has non decided on construction its own dispersal system and may rely on conflicting agents for distribution. NutraSweet is more expensive than ordinary white sugar. Opportunities China is a defective market and can pull u p stakes higher profitability to the fraternity.China is the encourage or eighth largest economy in the world depending on how it was gauged. at that place is a perceived consumers infatuation with Western brands. Chinese maintain sanitary lifestyle so the potential for NutraSweet to launch their product in China is strong. Threats Sugar is a common ho social functionhold purchase as a sweetener and has been part of Chinese households for decades. Culture dictates that there might be difficulty in replacing traditional use of sugar with NutraSweet. The Chinese market is so diverse and it is difficult to come up with a general characteristic to define them.Artificial sweeteners are known by history of skepticism for saccharin and potential health hazards. there is difficulty in attracting and retaining local employees and as such, NutraSweet is having doubts in investing into training their marketing and gross revenue personnel for fear that the employees would not stay long in t he company. There are only very few foreign agents that operate in China. Sugar use and consumption levels differed among 3 key markets Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing. Arthur Andersen survey in China showed that most joint ventures from food and drink were not profitable. virtually MNCs in China are unprofitable despite substantial growth. absolute majority of the Chinese are considered flat-bellied and dont see the contract for a diet regimen. The Chinese culture also dictates that they are not that concerned with their teeth, hence they dont have that fear of tooth decay. The company should enter the greater China market as a ecological niche product for consumers with a medical wishing. The company cannot delay its entry in the China market, especially with factors such as an average of 10% frugal growth, a quickly emerging middle class, and a high adventure in consumers increase purchasing power.Postponement of entry may bastardly higher costs in the future and although the company give not immediately profit from the venture, research showed that companies who entered the market 5 to 10 long time ago were doing best. The knowledge gained from market entry pass on allow NutraSweet to compound its future strategies. Pros The successful experience in establishing medical awareness in Hong Kong may be applied to the Greater China Market. Entering the Greater China market through the terzetto key cities will provide a better knowledge of the overall Chinese market.A ingrained market consisting of diabetics and obese customers already exist. Hospital memory boards and drug dispensaries do not have the bargaining strength that retailers have. Product information campaigns will be facilitated by health professionals who will easily understand and appreciate the products benefits. Promotion to medical professionals through associations will not need as much cost as a nationwide mass-market campaign. A $ 2,010,526. 31 in breakeven sales seems very f easible in the Chinese market.Cons The Chinese tend to be slim and had historically not been control by tooth decay. ? SHORT-TERM The Chinese consumers attraction to brand names, especially the physical body 1 in any category gives NutraSweet an opportunity to establish itself as a first mover in the medical aid products under a new category of sweeteners. The company will launch a product information campaign for medical professionals and will also solicit their associations. Associations of diabetics and obese consumers will also be tapped.The company will think on relationship building with the medical industry. Since poor dental health is a problem in China, the company may also effect an awareness drive on the ill effects of sugar on the teeth to lay the foundation of need awareness. The product will be packaged in sachet form with global brand and American p desirousograph prominent on the sachet to appeal to the consumers preference for American brands. The company wil l capitalize on the convenience of bringing the sachets anywhere with you.The medical industry will be given free samples of the product. The doctors will be taught to press daily use of the product, with sweetening of milk and coffee or hot drinks as one of the more common purposes. Consumers will be taught to use the product in cooking through the provision of free pattern booklets and cooking demonstration classes. The product will be distributed in the three key cities of Greater China, namely, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing, where the medical industry is more developed compared with the other(a) cities.The company will create its own distribution structure. The product will use the distribution channels of hospital stores and drug dispensaries. Since the focus is on niche marketing, the product will still be sourced from the U. S. plant. LONG-TERM The long goal will be to mass market the product in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and use the learnings from those markets to penetrat e the market Greater China. Establishing distribution networks in the two countries will be easier, given the favorable subscriber line environments. In Hong Kong andTaiwan, the product will be repositioned as a sinewy family lifestyle food, targeting the affluent, health and weight conscious consumers. Aggressive promotion will be pursued, such as print and media ads, and the employment of product endorsers, and store promotions. Consumer awareness and education will be the focus of the campaigns.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Historical Development in the Field of Toxicology And Mechanisms and Factors obligated for the Entrance of Toxi basints in the Human ashes and their malign Effects Jorge D. Rebolledo capital of South Carolina Southern University Abs folder The purpose of this paper is to make a utterly historical reference in the field of Toxicology and how this argona of science has organize starting from centuries ago until our present. It is also the intention of this paper to explain how the toxics show our be, how they argon intent and the mechanisms responsible for that. Introduction As stated by E.Monosson, rough define Toxicology as the study of toxic materials, including the clinical, industrial, economic, and legal problems associated with them. Although toxicologyas a formally recognized scientific disciplineis comparatively b be-ass (with major developments in the mid-1900s), the science itself is thousands of yrs old. Consider the potential results of wee trial and error expe riences of hunter-gatherers for whom identifying a toxic plant or zoology was a life or death situation. any(prenominal) of the most pestiferous cognitive contents cognise today argon naturally produced chemics including ricin from castor beans or tetrodotoxin from the puffer fish.Early human strains c beful observations of such plants or animals with toxic characteristics as frogs, containing cur ar, were put to use non totally for avoidance of toxic substances moreover for weaponry as well. Many naturally-derived poisons were likely employ for hunt down, as medicinal (the Egyptians were certified of many such toxic substances as lead, opium and hemlock as early as 1500 BCE). Use extended eventually to political insobrietys as practiced, for example, by the early Greeks and Romans. With time, poisons became widely used and with great sophistication.Notable poisoning victims implicate Socrates, Cleopatra, and Claudius. One of the more interesting stories resulting fro m a combination of twain ancient history and current toxicological research, is the story of King Mithridates, fagot of Pontus (120-63 BC) who according to toxicology legend was so afraid that he might be a casualty of political poisoning, is said to restrain concocted a potion from a great number of herbs for his own consumption. It is believed he understood that by overpowering belittled totalitys of potential poisons, he might protect himself from any manque pois iodinr.That is, he believed in the effectiveness of hormesis. App arently, his plans worked so well that he gained a notice for himself as one so mighty he could not be eraseed. Unfortunately, it is said that when circumstances were such that he desired to kill himself, he was unable to do so by ingesting poison and had to be run by dint of by a sword instead. Whether or not the story is true, it has led current day scientists to speculate upon the ingredients of his potion. It is believed that whatever herbs t hat he whitethorn throw away used, for example, St. Johns Wort could truly postulate contri aloneed to detoxification of some otherwise poisons. fresh studies cook demonstrated that St. Johns Wort (often used as an herbal remedy) wad accession the metabolism or tell apartdown of certain drugs and chemicals. This early story of toxicology relates a genuinely important conceptthat all animals have some kind of intrinsic ability for detoxifying a number of naturally-occurring toxi potts in undersized doses (so that, in some chemises depressive dis foundly doses of chemicals may lane through the body without make believe harm. From this we derive the concept of a chemical threshold), and that these processes can be adapted by painting to other chemicals.The question go ons as to how ace animals, including humans, are at detoxifying many of the red-hoter industrial chemicals or mixtures of industrial or industrial and natural chemicals. Additionally, it is well known that in some cases, detoxification of chemicals can produce even more toxic compounds. Pre-industrial Toxicology As declared by E. Monosson, as humans sought to better understand natural compounds that were both beneficial and harmful to them, there was very puny if any light(a) understanding of the fundamental chemical nature of substances.That is, there was no liaison between the ex piece of ground and essence of a poisonous plant or animal and any one particular chemical that might cause toxicity. In fact, an awareness of chemistry in its modern form did not occur until around the mid to late 1600s. Paracelsus, a physician from the sixteenth part century and one of the early Fathers of Toxicology believed that all matter was composed of trinity ancient bodies (sulfur, salt, and mercury). Yet, Paracelsus also coined the now famous maxim of the newly emerging discipline of toxicology All substances are poisons, there is none which is not a poison.The right dose contrastive iates a poison from a remedy. (Paracelsus, 1493-1541) This phrase and Paracelsus name are committed to memory by hundreds of new toxicology students each year and has become the motto of toxicology. Interestingly, if one takes Paracelsus at sheath value, it appears that in this cite he was referring to substances which served as potential remedies but could be poisonous if interpreted in luxuriously enough submersions. Most of us are aware of the fact that overdosing can turn remedies to poisons, even with such apparently guiltless drugs as aspirin and Tylenol.Another branch on the toxicology family tree that substantial in the sixteenth century, along with the study of drugs and the use of chemicals in hunting and war off the beaten track(predicate)e, was occupational toxicology. As humans learned how to re excise and exploit such materials as coal, and metals and other minerals, occupational scenes to these chemical substances (and chemicals produced incidentally) resulte d. Scientists eventually recognized the linkages among illnesses and exposures to these compounds. many of the first reports of occupational illness, or diseases caused by activities related to specific occupations, can be found in literature from the mid- to late-1500s. Early occupational observations hold the ill effects from lead mining and madness caused by mercury exposure (for example, the saying mad as a hatter was attributed to the uncouth use of mercury in the hat felting process). Later, in the 1700s, Bernardino Ramazzini is credited with take to light diseases of tradesmen, including silicosis in stone workers and lead poisoning.In the late 1700s, Sir Percival Potts make one of the more famous observations in toxicology, linking an occupational exposure (in this case soot in chimney sweeps) to cancer of the scrotum. At this point we have discussed the pre-Industrial Revolution developments in toxicology, that were primarily devoted to the study of such naturally-occurr ing toxicants as the polyaromatic compounds contained in soot and heavy metals, and such toxins as botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Toxicology and the Chemical and Industrial RevolutionThe chemical/Industrial Revolution of the mid-19th century released many naturally-occurring chemicals into the environment in unprecedented amounts. Also, it produced and released new substances unlike any that had knowed in the natural world. With the production and use of these chemicals, and the make to protect humans from the toxic effects of industrial chemicals, toxicology eventually evolved to include its modern day branches pharmacology, pesticide toxicology, general toxicology, and occupational toxicology.Towards the mid-late 20th century, environmental toxicology was real to specifically visit the effects on both humans and wildlife of chemicals released into the environment. A notable difference among the branches of toxicology is that pharmacology, pest icides and even occupational toxicology primarily have center on the effects of comparatively postgraduate submergences of single chemicals. This compares to the relatively low submergings of several different chemicals or chemical mixtures that are relevant to environmental toxicology. The chemicals considered by the earlier branches of toxicology were, and are, a known quantity.That is, the research was designed to address questions about specific, well-characterized chemicals, exposure conditions, and even concentration ranges rather than complex chemical mixtures. For example, pharmacologists might work with a particular active ingredient (e. g. , salicylic caustic or aspirin), and be confident about the course of exposure (oral) and the concentration or dose. This is seldom the case in environmental toxicology, and hazardous absquatulate assessment and cleanup in particular, where chemicals often are present in mixtures, routes of exposure may vary (for example, from ora l to dermal to inhalation).Significantly, exposure concentrations invoke difficult to determine. Mechanisms and Factors Responsible for the Entrance of Toxicants in the Human body and their Harmful Effects density of toxicants density is the process whereby toxicants gain entrance to the body. Ingested and inhaled materials, nonetheless, are considered outside the body until they target the cubicleular barriers of the GI nerve tract or the respiratory outline. To exert an effect on inwrought organs a toxicant must be intent, although such local toxicity as irritation, may occur.Absorption varies greatly with specific chemicals and with the route of exposure. For skin, oral or respiratory exposure, the exposure dose (or, outside dose) is usually lone(prenominal) a fraction of the inattentive dose (that is, the internal dose). For substances injected or implanted straight into the body, exposure dose is the same as the absorbed or internal dose. Several factors travel th e likelihood that a foreign chemical or, xenobiotic, bequeath be absorbed. According to E. Monosson, the most important are Route of exposure Concentration of the substance at the site of contact Chemical and physiologic properties of the substance The relative roles of concentration and properties of the substance vary with the route of exposure. In some cases, a high percentage of a substance may not be absorbed from one route whereas a low amount may be absorbed via another route. For example, very little DDT powder ordain penetrate the skin whereas a high percentage will be absorbed when it is swallowed. Due to such route-specific differences in assimilation, xenobiotics are often ranked for hazard in accordance with the route of exposure.A substance may be categorized as relatively non-toxic by one route and highly toxic via another route. The primary routes of exposure by which xenobiotics can gain entry into the body are Gastro enteral tract Key in environmental exposu re to nutrient and water contaminants and is the most important route for many pharmaceuticals. Respiratory tract Key in environmental and occupational exposure to aerial toxicants and some drugs that use this route (i. e. inhalers). Skin Also an environmental and occupational exposure route.A lot of medicines are applied to the skin directly. Other routes of exposureused primarily for specific medical purposesare Injections (IV, Subcutaneous, Intradermal, Intrathecal) basically used for medications. Implants (Hormone patches) Conjunctival instillations (Eye drops) Suppositories For a toxic to enter the body (as well as ingrain indoors, and leave the body) it must pass evadewise prison cell tissue layers (cell walls). stall membranes are formidable barriers and major body defenses that prevent foreign invaders or substances from gaining entry into body tissues.Normally, cells in solid tissues (for example, skin or mucous membranes of the lung or intestine) are so tigh tly compacted that substances cannot pass between them. Entry, therefore, requires that the xenobiotic have some capability to penetrate cell membranes. Also, the substance must cross several membranes in pitch to go from one area of the body to another. In essence, for a substance to move through one cell requires that it first move crossways the cell membrane into the cell, pass crossways the cell, and then cross the cell membrane again in order to leave the cell.This is true whether the cells are in the skin, the lining of a fallline vessel, or an internal organ (for example, the liver). In many cases, in order for a substance to reach its site of toxic action, it must pass through several membrane barriers. Cell membranes surround all body cells and are basically similar in structure. They consist of 2 layers of phospho lipid molecules logical like a sandwich and also known as phospholipid bilayer. all(prenominal) phospholipid molecule consists of a inorganic phosphate head and a lipid bobsled. The phosphate head is polar so it is hydrophilic (attracted to water).In contrast, the lipid tail is lipophilic (attracted to lipid-soluble substances). The two phospholipid layers are oriented on opposing sides of the membrane so that they are approximate mirror images of each other. The polar heads face outward and the lipid tails inward. The cell membrane is tightly packed with these phospholipid moleculesinterspersed with various proteins and cholesterol molecules. most proteins span across the entire membrane providing for the constitution of aqueous channels or pores. Some toxicants move across a membrane barrier with relative ease while others meet it difficult or impossible.Those that can cross the membrane, do so by one of two general methods either resistless transfer or facilitated channelize. Passive transfer consists of simple diffusion (or osmotic filtration) and is dormant in that there is no requirement for cellular energy or assista nce. Some toxicants cannot simply diffuse across the membrane. They require assistance that is facilitated by narrow transport mechanisms. The primary types of specialized transport mechanisms are Facilitated diffusion quick transport Endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis). Passive transfer is the most common way that xenobiotics cross cell membranes.Two factors determine the rate of passive transfer Differences in concentrations of the substance on opposite sides of the membrane (substance moves from a region of high concentration to one having a lower concentration. Diffusion will preserve until the concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane) and Ability of the substance to move either through the elflike pores in the membrane or through the lipophilic interior of the membrane. Properties of the chemical substance that affect its ability for passive transfer are Lipid solvability Molecular size phase of ionization (that is, the electrical charge of an ato m) Substances with high lipid solubility right away diffuse through the phospholipid membrane. Small water-soluble molecules can pass across a membrane through the aqueous pores, along with normal intracellular water flow. volumed water-soluble molecules usually cannot make it through the small pores, although some may diffuse through the lipid portion of the membrane, but at a slow rate. In general, highly ionized chemicals have low lipid solubility and pass with difficulty through the lipid membrane.Most aqueous pores are about 4 angstrom (A) in size and allow chemicals of molecular lading 100-200 to pass through. Exceptions are membranes of capillaries and kidney glomeruli that have relatively vast pores (about 40A) that allow molecules up to a molecular angle of about 50,000 (molecules slightly smaller than albumen which has a molecular weight of 60,000) to pass through. Facilitated diffusion is similar to simple diffusion in that it does not require energy and follows a concentration gradient. The difference is that it is a carrier-mediated transport mechanism.The results are similar to passive transport but faster and heart-to-heart of moving orotundr molecules that have difficulty diffusing through the membrane without a carrier. Examples are the transport of sugar and amino acids into red blood cells (RBCs), and into the central nervous system (CNS). Some substances are unable to move with diffusion, unable to dissolve in the lipid layer, and are too life-size to pass through the aqueous channels. For some of these substances, active transport processes go in which movement through the membrane may be against the concentration gradient they move from low to higher concentrations.Cellular energy from adenosine triphosphate (ADP) is need in order to accomplish this. The transported substance can move from one side of the membrane to the other side by this energy process. officious transport is important in the transport of xenobiotics into t he liver, kidney, and central nervous system and for maintenance of electrolyte and nutrient balance. Many large molecules and particles cannot enter cells via passive or active mechanisms. However, some may enter, by a process known as endocytosis. In endocytosis, the cell surrounds the substance with a section of its cell wall.This engulfed substance and section of membrane then separates from the membrane and moves into the interior of the cell. The two main forms of endocytosis are phagocytosis and pinocytosis. In phagocytosis (cell eating), large particles suspended in the extracellular fluid are engulfed and either transported into cells or are destroyed within the cell. This is a very important process for lung phagocytes and certain liver and lien cells. Pinocytosis (cell drinking) is a similar process but involves the engulfing of liquids or very small particles that are in suspension within the extracellular fluid.Gastro enteral packet The fuck uptrointestinal tract (GI tract, the major portion of the alimentary canal) can be viewed as a tube going through the body. Its contents are considered exterior to the body until absorbed. Salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas are considered accessory glands of the GI tract as they have ducts entering the GI tract and secrete enzymes and other substances. For foreign substances to enter the body, they must pass through the gastrointestinal mucosa, cut through several membranes before entering the blood stream.Substances must be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in order to exert a general toxic effect, although local gastrointestinal damage may occur. Absorption can occur at any turn out along the entire gastrointestinal tract. However, the degree of intentness is strongly site dependent. Three main factors affect engrossment within the various sites of the gastrointestinal tract Type of cells at the specific site Period of time that the substance remains at the site pH of wear or int estinal contents at the site.Under normal conditions, xenobiotics are scummyly absorbed within the speak and esophagus, delinquent mainly to the very short time that a substance resides within these portions of the gastrointestinal tract. There are some notable exceptions. For example, nicotine readily penetrates the mouth mucosa. Also, nitroglycerin is placed under the tongue (sublingual) for immediate absorption and treatment of heart conditions. The sublingual mucosa under the tongue and in some other areas of the mouth is thin and highly vascularized so that some substances will be rapidly absorbed.The yield, having high acidity (pH 1-3), is a probatory site for absorption of weak organic acids, which exist in a diffusible, nonionized and lipid-soluble form. In contrast, weak bases will be highly ionized and therefore are absorbed poorly. Chemically, the acidic stomach may break down some substances. For this undercoat those substances must be administered in jelly capsul es or coated tablets, that can pass through the acidic stomach into the intestine before they dissolve and release their contents. Another determinant that affects the amount of a substance that will be absorbed in the stomach is the presence of food.Food ingested at the same time as the xenobiotic may result in a considerable difference in absorption of the xenobiotic. For example, the LD50 for Dimethline (a respiratory stimulant) in rats is 30 mg/kg (or 30 part per million) when ingested along with food, but only 12 mg/kg when it is administered to desist rats. The greatest absorption of chemicals, as with nutrients, takes place in the intestine, particularly in the small intestine (see Figure 9). The intestine has a large come in area consisting of outward projections of the thin (one-cell thick) mucosa into the lumen of the intestine (the villi).This large surface area facilitates diffusion of substances across the cell membranes of the intestinal mucosa. Since the intestinal pH is near neutral (pH 5-8), both weak bases and weak acids are nonionized and are usually readily absorbed by passive diffusion. Lipid soluble, small molecules effectively enter the body from the intestine by passive diffusion. In adjunct to passive diffusion, facilitated and active transport mechanisms exist to move certain substances across the intestinal cells into the body, including such essential nutrients as glucose, amino acids and calcium.Also, strong acids, strong bases, large molecules, and metals (and some important toxins) are transported by these mechanisms. For example, lead, thallium, and paraquat (herbicide) are toxicants that are transported across the intestinal wall by active transport systems. The high degree of absorption of ingested xenobiotics is also due to the slow movement of substances through the intestinal tract. This slow passage increases the length of time that a compound is available for absorption at the intestinal membrane barrier. Intestinal microflora and gastrointestinal enzymes can affect the toxicity of ingested substances.Some ingested substances may be only poorly absorbed but they may be biotransformed within the gastrointestinal tract. In some cases, their biotransformed products may be absorbed and be more toxic than the ingested substance. An important example is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines from non-carcinogenic amines by intestinal flora. Very little absorption takes place in the colon and rectum. As a general rule, if a xenobiotic has not been absorbed after passing through the stomach or small intestine, very little further absorption will occur.However, there are some exceptions, as some medicines may be administered as rectal suppositories with significant absorption. An example, is Anusol (hydrocortisone preparation) used for treatment of local inflammation which is partially absorbed (about 25%). Respiratory Tract Many environmental and occupational agents as well as some pharmaceuticals are inhaled and enter the respiratory tract. Absorption can occur at any place within the hurrying respiratory tract. However, the amount of a particular xenobiotic that can be absorbed at a specific location is highly dependent upon its bodily form and solubility.There are three basic regions to the respiratory tract Nasopharyngeal region Tracheobronchial region Pulmonary region By far the most important site for absorption is the pulmonary region consisting of the very small stockways (bronchioles) and the alveolar sacs of the lung. The alveolar region has a very large surface area (about 50 times that of the skin). In addition, the alveoli consist of only a single layer of cells with very thin membranes that separate the inhaled air from the blood stream. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases pass readily through this membrane.In contrast to absorption via the gastrointestinal tract or through the skin, gases and particles, which are water-soluble (and thus blood soluble) , will be absorbed more efficiently from the lung alveoli. Water-soluble gases and liquid aerosols can pass through the alveolar cell membrane by simple passive diffusion. In addition to solubility, the ability to be absorbed is highly dependent on the physiologic form of the agent (that is, whether the agent is a gas/vapor or a particle). The physical form determines penetration into the deep lung.A gas or vapor can be inhaled deep into the lung and if it has high solubility in the blood, it is almost completely absorbed in one respiration. Absorption through the alveolar membrane is by passive diffusion, following the concentration gradient. As the agent dissolves in the circulating blood, it is taken away so that the amount that is absorbed and enters the body may be quite large. The only way to increase the amount absorbed is to increase the rate and erudition of breathing. This is known as ventilation-limitation.For blood-soluble gases, equilibrium between the concentration o f the agent in the inhaled air and that in the blood is difficult to achieve. Inhaled gases or vapors, which have poor solubility in the blood, have quite limited capacity for absorption. The reason for this is that the blood can become quickly saturated. Once saturated, blood will not be able to accept the gas and it will remain in the inhaled air and then exhaled. The only way to increase absorption would be to increase the rate of blood supply to the lung.This is known as flow-limitation. Equilibrium between blood and the air is reached more quickly for relatively insoluble gases than for soluble gases. The absorption of airborne particles is usually quite different from that of gases or vapors. The absorption of solid particles, regardless of solubility, is dependent upon particle size. Large particles (5 M) are generally deposited in the nasopharyngeal region ((head airways region) with little absorption. Particles 2-5 M can penetrate into the tracheobronchial region. Very smal l particles (
Child development refers to an individuals climb on from birth to adulthood. There ar several changes that top in a normal persons life span-physical, cognitive and psychosocial (Fitch, 1999, p. 9). The three unionise the domains of baby bird development. Physical development refers to the changes that occur in the individuals body, such as height, weight, sensory and motor abilities, as well as the hormonal changes (p. 9). On the other hand, cognitive development alludes to the intellectual changes that occur as children develop (p. 9). As children grow, they start to develop attitudes about themselves and their surroundings.As they continue to search for their identity, their psychosocial development also unfolds. There argon several(predicate) theories that tackle child development. St era theories are theories that concentrate on developmental levels that are quantitatively different from other levels (p. 40). Quantitative, in this sense, means that severally developmental level is a progression, an integration of previous port and study (p. 40). Furthermore, the progression from one spot to another is discontinuous, indicating that it follows a fixed rate (pp. 40-41).Theorists who subscribe the represent theories of child development believe that all stages are universal (p. 41). There are three major theorists in child development Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Sigmund Freud is considered the bring forth of psychoanalysis (Thornton, 2006). Psychoanalysis is a proficiency develop by Freud that is used to uncover the unconscious (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 15). A medical exam doctor by profession, Freud was particularly interested in the central skittish system (p. 14). In his life of work, he found that most diseases are psychological in nature, rather than physiological.Thus, he came to the conclusion that human port is driven by the unconscious instincts (p. 446). He believed that the unconscious instincts are zippy in an individuals survival. Moreover, he accentuated the importance of internal instincts as the most important element in spirit development. Personality, according to Freud, is developed around three structures the id, the ego, and the superego (Fitch, 1999, p. 41). The id is guided by the pleasure principles, ego, the reality principle, and superego, the chaste principle (p. 41).These structures are crucial in Freuds theory of psychosexual development, or his perceptive on child development. There are quintuplet stages in Freuds Psychosexual Theory, each stage involving some levels of sexual energy. According to Freud, as children go through each stage, their personality is being developed. However, when a child undergoes traumatic experiences, the sexual energy that should have been at that particular stage may be affected, resulting in what Freud termed as fastener (Larsen and Buss, 2005, p. 47). Fixation may later clue to immaturity and certain personality traits.In the oral stage (birth to 18 months), the infants concentre of gratification is the mouth (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 448). During this stage, the infants id is dominant, especially because the infant has besides to differentiate the self and the environment (Larsen and Buss, 2005, p. 47). The infant obtains oral pleasure by sucking, chewing and biting (Morris and, p. 448). Infants who receive too much pleasure volition grow into optimistic adults those who receive little will turn into violent adults (p. 448).During the anal stage (18 months to 3 ? ears), the childs primary character reference of sexual pleasure is the anus (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 448). In this stage, the childs ego is kickoff to differentiate from his/ her id and the child starts to establish self-sufficiency (Larsen and Buss, 2005, p. 47). The child starts to learn excrement and he/ she derives sexual pleasure from holding in and expelling bowel movement (p. 448). This is also the sequence when toilet cook ing begins. Strict toilet training may result in children throwing tantrums, which according to Freud will runway them into unsafe adults (p. 448).The third stage- phallic stage, occurs after the child reaches three years of age (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 448). In this stage, both boys and girls seek pleasure from manipulating their genitals (p. 448). Interestingly, children rifle sexually attracted to opposite-sex parent (Larsen and Buss, 2005, p. 48). Freud calls this the Oedipus and Electra complex (p. 448). The former refers to the Greek mythological character that kills his dumbfound and marries his mother (p. 448). The latter refers to the somewhat possessive love that girls display toward their father while feeling jealous of their mothers (p. 48).The childs superego is also get-go to take control, as the child starts to take notice of his/ her parents values as well as that of the society. Fixation in this stage may lead to vanity and egotism in later life. Or it may lead to the opposite, wherein the individual becomes withdrawn, shy and has low self-esteem (p. 448). When the child reaches 6 up until he/she reaches puberty, the child goes into a latency stage. During this period, sexual development is at a standstill (Larsen and Buss, 2002, p. 51).The child loses interest in sexual behavior and instead begins focusing on learning skills that will help him/her become responsible citizens in the society (p. 510. ). At puberty, the child reaches the genital stage. It is during this stage wherein sexual tension builds up. It is a period of sexual maturity. The genital stage is the final stage in sexual development and it is in this stage where adolescents and adults are able to actualize unfilled desires from infancy and childhood (Morris and Maisto, 2002, p. 448). It is the time when mature sexual relationships are established.
Monday, February 25, 2019
AbstractThe riding habit of the meshwork for immoral purpose is peerless of the virtu each(prenominal)y lively challenges facing the FBI and truth enforcement in habitual. Understanding and using the internet to armed combat Internet Fraud is meaty for law enforcement. The imposter universe founderted over the Internet is the truly(prenominal) Type of white collar fraud the FBI has traditionally investigated but poses special concerns And Challenges, be condition of the naked environment in which it is located. The Internet is a perfect fomite to locate victims and endure the environment where the victims Dont see or speak to the double-dealing. The Internet environment often creates a false genius of protective covering among users leading them to check out opportunities found on the Internet less Thoroughly than they might otherwise. computing device detestation poses a intimidating task for law Enforcement agencies because they argon highly Technical nuis ances.Law enforcement agencies essential Have individuals trained in ready reckoner science or computing machine forensics in order to properly to Properly investigate reckoner shames. Computer discourtesy is defined as both soul that violates any Of the victual of the following unauthorized access to a computer system, Theft of computer Services, Interruption of computer Services, Misuses of computer system learning, and Destruction of computer equipment. The general heading of computer crime shadower electric potentially Cover an start out of offense by examining several existing definitions of computer crime, as wellhead as Elements suggested as essential, some Have defined computer crime as any offense that uses or Somehow involves a computer. manipulation of Internet and crimeThe growth of the Internet has improved our economy, medicine and engineering. Unfortunately, it has brought new opportunities for culpable activity, as well. Often, people Think cyber-crime simply refers to hacking, viruses and other invasion tactics. Cyber- crime, However, threatens more than our vocationes, economy or domainal infrastructure. Cyber- crime Affects us individuals, as well. Reprehensible crimes, such as pincer lampblack and cyber Stalking, terrorize our children and our families.At the first hearing in this series, on May 24th, the Texas Deputy attorney General for woeful Justice testified that, quote, One of the biggest problems is that computer criminals are targeting The well-nigh vulnerable of our society, children. He pointed out that, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, child pornography was virtually extinct prior to the advent of the Internet. Now it is a serious plague on our society that essential be stopped.Adults alike experience the dark side of the Internet revolution. Using computer technology, bend types steal life savings and even identities of unsuspecting individuals. These pose atrocious threats to the l ives and the livelihoods of many individuals. But in addressing these areas Of crime, law-enforcement officers face several challenges. Identifying a modern criminal Can be difficult. Once they are identified, bringing a criminal to justice may be problematic for Jurisdictional reasons.The criminal may be in a different State or even a nonher country, and then law enforcement Officials moldiness deal with extradition issues. Also, retrieving the learning stored on a computer And using it for prosecution may be difficult if it requires highly technical skills non normally Taught to investigators or prosecutors. As long as there is technology, cybercrime go out exist, yet Cybercrime mustiness be curtailed as much as possible so that technology gutter legitimately continue To enrich our lives and strengthen our economy.Congress understands that law-enforcement officials must shake off the appropriate training and Equipment to fight fire with fire, or computer technology with com puter technology but Law-enforcement must remain cognizant of the take in to comfort the law-abiding publics Privacy while protecting the public. The public must understand that law-enforcement does compulsion To use technology to deal with this new insurrection threat to our children, our economy and our National security.Under current law, law-enforcement authorities must apply for the identical order in multiple Jurisdictions, make burdens and delays that pull in no one but criminals. Congress should look At the theory of a single order that would cover these kinds of requests comprehensively. Over the last decade, use of computers and the Internet has grown exponentially. Indeed, for Many individuals it is an integral touch off of their daily lives. With teeny more than a click of a Mouse, people can communicate, polish off information, engage in commerce, and expand their Educational opportunities. Unfortunately, criminals exploit these same technologies to commit Cr imes and harm the safety, security, and privacy of us all.Indeed, as more people go online, More criminals are realizing that online crime can be lucrative, especially prone the amount of Valuable commercial and private information now being stored electronically. So-called cybercrime can be divided into two categories. On the one hand, we are seeing the Migration of traditional crimes from the physical to the online world. These crimes include Threats, child pornography, fraud, gambling, extortion, and thieving of intellectual property.SimplyPut, criminals are migrating online because they can reach more victims quickly, can collaborate With other criminals, can disguise their identities, and can use the worldwide nature of the Internet to Remain anonymous. On the other hand, the Internet has spawned an solo new set of criminal Activity that targets computer networks them. Included in this category are such crimes as Hacking, releasing viruses, and shutting passel computers b y flooding them with unwanted Information (so-called denial of attend to attacks). Our picture toand the detriments caused Bythis type of crime are astonishingly high.For example, in May of last course, the I Love You Virus began to infect computers on the Internet. Within a short period of time, it had disrupted the communications of hundreds of Thousands of computers, causing losses estimated in the billions of dollars. Virus demonstrated a new dexterity when it infected a computer, it accessed the users Computer passwords and sent them electronically to a computer in a foreign country. The Implications of this virusand the many viruses that arrive at followed itare staggering.In March of this year, the FBIs National Infrastructure Protection reduce issued a warning that An organized group of hackers from Russia and Eastern Europe had act a series of Intrusions into more than forty banks and e-commerce companies in the United States. The Hackers take over 1,000,000 quota tion taunt numbers from the companies data bases. They then Embarked on extortion of many of the companies, threatening to disclose confidential Information or damage the victims computer systems. Evidence suggests that the hackers then Sold many of the credit card numbers to organized crime groups. This crimethe investigation into which the Treasury surgical incision participated and which has to Date resulted in two arrestshas grave implications. Not only did it cause financial losses forThe Companies, but it harmed the privacy and security of the ordinary citizens whose credit Cards numbers and personal data were stolen. Individuals victimized by these sorts of rightfully Fear the ramifications of criminals gaining access to their private financial and Personal data. This type of crime strikes at the confidence of consumers, threatening the vital Growth of e-commerce.Network crimes not only affect the security of individuals and businesses, they can overly threaten Our nations critical infrastructures. Our power and water supply systems, telecommunications Networks, financial sector, and critical governing body services, such as emergency and theme Defense services, all rely on computer networks.Cyber terrorist, the same devastating result could be achieved by hacking into the control Network and commanding the computer to open the floodgates. This is not a purely hypothetical Scenario. Several years ago, a youthful hacker gained unauthorized access to the computers Controlling the operations of the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona.Although there are as yet no definitive statistics on the scope of the problem, there is no doubt That the number of crimes involving computers and the Internet is rising dramatically. For Example, the CERT Coordination Center, which was created to warn about computer attacks and Viruses, received over 21,000 network crime incident reports last year. This is more than double The number of reports it received the year before. Similarl y, a survey conducted by the FBI and The Computer Security Institute tardily revealed substantial increases in computer crime. Over 85 percent of the companies and government agencies surveyed reported computer securityBreaches within the preceding twelve months, up from 70 percent last year. Moreover, Researchers at the University of California at San Diego deep reported a methodology that Enabled them to count the numbers of denial of service attacks. Their research revealed that 4,000 attacks occur every week. Responding to these threats is a daunting challenge. From my perspective, as I begin my assessment of our cybercrime efforts and the direction they Should take in the future, at to the lowest degree three themes or elements seem to emerge as oddly? great to success in confronting cybercrime developing specialize expertise, building Teamwork and partnerships, and assuring we work legal authorities which are both effective and Appropriate in the unique and ever-evolvin g setting of computers and the Internet.DEVELOPING SPECIALIZED EXPERTISECombating computer crime requires a team of professionals, including investigators, forensic Experts, and prosecutors, all of whom have technical expertise. In addition to traditional Investigative skills, cybercrime investigators must be well inner in the intricacies of technology To insure that try is not lost or overlooked. Forensic experts must complete how to handle Electronic evidence to protect its integrity for later use at trial, as well as how to recover and Analyze digital evidence from computers with hard drives that store gigabytes of data.And Prosecutors must understand the jargon and complexities of high-technology crimes and be able To translate technical evidence into a form understandable to a judge and jury. United States law enforcement agencies have devoted significant resources to developing cadres Of investigators and forensic experts who have the specialized skills needed for cybercrim e Investigations. The FBI and Secret Service, which have particularly classic investigative Responsibilities with abide by to Internet and computer-related crimes, have certainly been in theA particularly Copernican aspect of developing, and then sharing expertise in the field is the across the nation network of federal prosecutors called Computer and Telecommunications Coordinators (or CTCs)at least one from each districtwho serve as the districts Prosecutorial expert on computer crime cases. The CTC initiative was started by CCIPS in 1995, And has been strongly back up by our U.S. lawyers. CCIPS trains and supports these Coordinators specially, so that they, in turn, can serve as a resource for their offices and the law Enforcement authorities and concerned industry in their regions of the country.In the Criminal Division, specialized expertise in combating cybercrime is not confined to CCIPS. other(a) sections have developed this expertise as traditional forms of criminalit y have Moved onto the Internet.For example, the subdivision has seen dramatic growth in various types of fraudulent online Schemes, and the Criminal Divisions Fraud sectionalisation has played a critical role in the Justice Departments response, including overseeing a Department-wide Internet Fraud Initiative begun In 1999. Its work to date has include (1) advising and supporting federal prosecutors throughout The country, including maintenance of an Internet fraud shortened bank (2) developing specialized Training on Internet fraud for courses at the Departments National Advocacy Center (3) publishing extensive materials on the Departments website, www.internetfraud.usdoj.gov, in Order to farm public understanding of Internet fraud schemes and how to deal with them and (4) Supporting improvements in federal agencies investigative and analytical resources, Including the Internet Fraud Complaint Center, a joint project of the FBI and the National Collar Crime Center.The Departme nt has to a fault been involved in the related problem of identity Theft, in part by providing national coordination of governmental efforts through the Identity Theft Subcommittee of the Attorney Generals Council on White Collar Crime. Of course, one of the most disturbing facets of cybercrime is the exploitation and abuse of Children, whether through distribution of child pornography over the Internet or through the Horrific conduct of informal predators that operate online.The FBI, the U.S. Attorneys Offices, And the Divisions Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section have developed special expertise In Investigating and prosecuting these crimes and currently devote significant resources to the Online aspects of child pornography and luring cases. Moreover, in this area and others, the Departments Office of Legal Education, in conjunction with various components of the Criminal Division regularly sponsors classes regarding computer crime and electronic evidence.BUILDING PARTNERS HIPSAs I noted at the beginning of my statement, the second element which seems particularly Important to our efforts against cybercrime is partnership building. Of course, from years as a Prosecutor, I know that teamwork is essential to any successful crime-fighting effort. But it Strikes me that in the area of cybercrime the need for effective partnerships, is not only Especially important but also requires partnerships well outside the traditional law enforcement Community. The complexity of cybercrime and the breadth, or potential breadth of its Impact, are part of the reason. However, another factor is the diversity of interests at play in the Cyber-world, and hence in our efforts to combat cybercrime. These include, among others, law Enforcement Interests, national security interests, privacy interests, and Commercial interests. Partnership, or at least dialogue, we will allow those interests to conflict and collide in ways Destructive of our efforts to combat cybercrime.VIRUS ES AND MALICOUS CODEViruses and malicious write in code are simply programs and like any other program, are designed for a Specific function. A virus or malicious code program iswritten for a kind of noncriminal Purposes including advertisements, jokes, and political messages, however, less humorous and More malicious intentions include destroying data, information, information acquisition, and Identity theft, surreptitious control of a remote machine, or the resolution of a legitimate business Or website. The virus is executed by some type of payload trigger, which causes the virus or Malicious code to deliver its contents or execute its commands. The trigger can be something The user does, such as opening an email attachment or downloading a file, it can be triggered By some event such as date or condition on a computer, or it can self- execute based on code Written into the virus program.PHISHINGThe term phishing means the fraudulent attempt to get a persons private informatio n (i.e. Username, password, account number, etc.). Phishers send an email make-believe to be from a legitimate company and have words you to provide your common soldier information. Typically the email will address you as a node and will direct you to Click on a affair to provide critical information to avoid a looming problem which they have Discovered. This link will be to a false website not the website of the legitimate company.Basically, they are fishing for peoples information to use illegally. Phishing is a very Sophisticated scam and many individuals and companies have been fooled, resulting in the theft Of their huffy information as well as millions of dollars every year. The email is usually designed to look like it is sent from a real company. The bait for personal Information is often contained in the emails caseful line. The subject usually contains a sense of Urgency. For example, it will read in ones inbox Your account needs to be verified or Your Account is about to be suspended.CONCLUSIONIt is important to note that computer security is always dependent on the weakest link in the Chain. Security on the Internet and exposure to a potential attack is particular upon the security Or lack thereof, of other parts of the network. It is also important to note that there is an Increasing number of dedicated infrastructure attacks.The mutualness of systems connected To the Internet used to carry out day-to-day business is ever growing and increasingly being Relied upon by variety of businesses, governments, and a numerous of other operations. There are four categories DDoS, worms, attacks on the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) And attacks against or using routers. Any attacks severalize from my research could lead to Denial Of Service, compromise of sensitive or personal information, misinformation, and an extreme Economic impact, largely from lost revenue and the time and resources demand to recover.ReferenceSecond Edition Digital Crime and Digital Terrorist (Robert W. Taylor, Eric J. Fritsch, conjuring trick Liederbach, and Thomas J. Holt) www.pearsonhighered.comGrossman, M. (Feb. 1999) Cyber terrorism http//www.mgrossmanlaw.com/articles/1999.cyberterrorism.htm Computer Security Policy and Research Institute. http.//www.cpi.seas.gwu.edu/aboutus.html www.research.ibm.com/antiviruswww.internetfraud.usdoj.gov
What are the critical challenges for the rail air line model to be sustainable? Before the occupancy model of Jamcracker could be established, it had to tackle a series of critical challenges. Foremost amongst them was the issue of timing, the risk of exposure Jamcracker might be delivering a new model of gain onward the world was ready for it. The model proposed was entirely a new food market mechanism for distributing ITServices and In order to succeed, the emerging markets warranted sufficient Infrastructure, economically possible Industry relationships and strong growth prospects which were all the more strained and perplex after the dot. com crash. Apart from timing issues the model faced severe technological roadblocks as well such as lack of established standards in the relatively young in asp industry which led to consolidation issues with Jamcracker platform.Apart from the above mention entry level problems, issues such as guide for rofessional services and cus tomer service were the dominant concerns which called for attention before the phone line model could be sustained. As the industry developed more and more people were getting involved. This called for services such as initial ashes configuration and integration which would be followed up by customer concerns regarding service level quality, privacy and security. Thus these were the critical challenges faced by the problem model before It could be sustained 2. How does Jamcracker fit in the asp (SaaS) space?Jamcracker analogous to Its name, tried to avoid IT log jams using web- ground technology, for its clients and give them to smoothly move towards their business objectives. Its business model was based on the widely anticipated growth of Application Service Providers, more popularly known as ASPS. ASPs provide various benefits to an organization such as speedy implementation of IT infrastructure, cost reduction, IT skilled workforce, 247 withstand etc. But given that these ASPs solved small IT problems for clients, Chandra along with subgenus Chen and Terbeek envisioned a nique space for Jamcracker In the ASP space.Although, Its model was based on ASP but Jamcracker was not an ASP Itself. It cooperated with ASP partners to comply application services through its enterprise I platTorm, JamcracKer Enterprlse, Into comprenenslve oTTerlngs. 3. How would you explain the business model of Jamcracker? As said above Jamcracker assumed the role of an ASP cafeteria wherein it partnered various specialized ASPs and using its enterprise IT platform, Jamcracker Enterprise rovided comprehensive solutions to the IT problems of its clients.In dewy-eyed terms, it aggregated the benefits of various ASPs and provided as one solution to the client. Since, Jamcracker presented these solutions to firms as IT segment in a box, the client had to Just maintain a single contractual relationship with Jamcracker rather than numerous relationships with specialized ASPS. So, a single interface with Jamcracker platform would suffice. Jamcrackers clients paid a per-user per-month fee for accessing Jamcrackers service nfrastructure and an additional per-user per-month fee for each application service that they chose to use.Also, a dispirited set up fee would be charged initially. Jamcracker did not commence to make large capital investments in developing and operating applications as it used the application services of its ASP partners. Although costs involved in engineering, service, sales and delivery were higher but economies were favorable. Also, adequate volumes allowed for generous margins as the incremental cost in serving a client was way less than doing the same for a new client..
Sunday, February 24, 2019
carcass The body of your judge go forth provide specific and relevant exposit that develop and raise your opinion on the base. The details should be reasons supportable with features, not more opinions. The body paragraphs will examine each fact you be presenting and explain to readers how this fact (or set of multiple facts) fixs to our thesis (point or opinion). Your thesis in nearly manner. (See Chapters 53 and 54 in LB legal brief. ) You must cite and cite all the texts you use as sources and list them at the end of your essay.See Chapter 56, MALL Documentation and Format, in LB Brief for guidelines and directions. Most of your body paragraphs will begin with a statement of a reason for the position you are taking on the report. The reprobates that follow will offer specific details about the topic and related texts to support, clarify, and express your thesis. Wrap up the paragraph by showing the readers that the details do in fact provide credible purport for you r opinion and reasoning. each paragraph should fulfill a different purpose in support of your thesis.You must now explain how the thinkings in these texts (sources) relate to your ideas (see pages 102-104 in LB Brief). Choose among the following, as appropriate for the particular source and your thesis (1) inform why you agree with the reservoir and relate his or her ideas to your thesis. You must do more than simply repeat the writes ideas and support. You need to extend the authors ideas and relate them to topics the author does not mention. 2) Agree with the author on some ideas but take issue on others as they relate to your thesis.Be specific about which ideas you accept and which ideas you do not accept. (3) Focus on only mavin point the author makes and explain why you disagree with him or her on that point as it relates to your thesis. (4) Explain how the author gets his or her points across, and comment on whether you think the authors strategies are effective and why you think so. (5) Focus on only one strategy the author uses and explain how it serves (or fails to serve) the authors purpose. Cite specific sections of the text that enlarge and evolve your critique.Relate the explanation to your own opinion on the topic. You develop a thesis by (1) giving the reasons for the position you are taking, (2) then backup man up those reasons with factual details, and (3) then explaining how those details relate to your thesis or position. The body paragraphs will consist of different approaches to developing your thesis. See pages 53-59 in LB Brief, and use twain or more of the following strategies annals retelling a story, anecdote, or historical event that supports the trustworthiness of your thesis readers to travail your pointIllustration presenting specific examples or instances that back up your main idea comment identifying boundaries, contrasting things that might be wrongly mistaken for each other, explicate abstract or involved terms Analysis dividing a topic or text into its logical parts to show readers how the parts relate to each other, or looking at a familiar topic or text from an unusual angle to show that it is more complex or simple than the readers might have at first design Classification listing the types, sorts, classes, levels, kinds, or genres of a topic to identify more easily understood pockets for further discussionComparison comparing or contrasting two or more topics to highlight qualities that support your idea or qualification an analogy, explaining something un hunch overn or complicated by comparing it to something readers already know and understand Cause-and-effect analysis dividing causes from effects to explain how or why something relating to your idea happened or might happen Process analysis dividing a appendage into steps, phases, or stages to help readers understand its connection to your thesis Make certain(a) that you use transitions and other devices for coherence that he lp readers e how one sentence relates to the next and how one paragraph relates to the next, as well as to your general point.See Chapter 7 (Paragraphs) in LB Brief to learn some strategies for achieving superstar and coherence. Conclusion Your conclusion should probably be the shortest section of your essay, comprising about a tenth of the whole (120-240 words). Pages 62-63 in LB Brief list some helpful strategies for concluding your essay. The main reason for a conclusion is to let readers know that you have (you hope) fully supported your opinion with the relevant visible(prenominal) facts and that your opinion on the topic is important for them to consider. Due Date/ scaling You must bring a thesis statement for this synthesis essay (typed, double-spaced, in MALL format) on Wednesday, 29 October.
This film has many positive lessons to be interpreted to heart throughout the film. However, the starchyest messages are that with a bit of perspective and the sponsor of our friends and family. You loafer make it through the worst of tragedies. Our family and friends are often our die sternly system. With them, anything becomes possible. Tom Hamilton, Bethanys father (played by Dennis Quaid) tells Bethany when she is ready to quit surfing subsequently the attack That shark didnt kill you, you are still here, still alive, ith a family who loves you. (1) Bethany may have scattered an arm, but that is non to maintain she has lost everything. doneout this uphill battle, Bethany has her friends and family there for her to help her tug back on the visiting card with confidence and to turn surfing back into the Joyful hobby she ab initio fell in love with. Similarly, perspective is everything. It is our outlook on sustenance and how we are able to see and horizontaltuall(a)y come to terms with lifes simplest and toughest decisions. During 1 of the t stimulates youth ights, Sarah Hill, the youth groups pastor (played by Carrie Underwood) says It can be hard to make sense of things when you are looking at them actually close.The said(prenominal) is veritable in life, so if you are ever dealing with anything that is equitable too hard to handle, or does not seem to make more sense, get a new perspective. (2) After the attack Bethany struggles in conclusion a reason why this has all happened to her. Why she has lost her arm, why she must learn how to do almost everything again, and how this could be gods plan for her. Through the guidance of Sarahs advice in getting a new perspective, and through her own faith, Bethany was able to come to a positive conclusion.With perspective and support you can make it over the highest bumps in the road. The scenes enticingly unique bill creates an everlasting conjunction between your own life and to the life o f Bethany Hamiltons. Based on sure-life events, this story lead inspire you to love yourself, and to be thankful for all that you have. When theater director Sean McNama was asked close to the challenges of making this celluloid nd he said it is about who Bethany really is, and so yeah-there was some give and take on some(prenominal) sides to make it great, but I was like lets Just be true to what she is. (3) Since Sean was able to stay so true to whom and what the real Bethany is all about, it makes you really see and have an appreciation for all she has gone through. And furthermore, all the struggles and obstacles she will continue to be faced with throughout the rest of her life. In addition, the circumscribed effects of this icon really add on to the overall achievement and the reality of the story. AnnaShophia Robb ore a green sleeve on her arm, which was later digitally removed to portray the missing limb.After the shooting of the actual scene took place, the cabal would shot a second one without anybody, insuring the background would match with the movie They had to do this tor every scene that Bethany was in, theretore tor the scene. majority of the movie. This was difficult because they had to do this without wasting away precious amounts of time. The main reason being, they were relying on the weather to hold up. all the extra work and attention to detail paid off, because everything ooks realistic, and as a viewer you can remain focused on the story and not the obvious Photoshop.When combing a story line based on true-life events and incredible special effects, you are left with a captivating movie. Creating relatable and convince characters is perhaps the hardest aspect in making films. You may know her from movies such(prenominal) as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Race to Witch Mountain, or maybe even from Because of Winn-Dixie. AnnaSophia Robb plays the main character of Bethany Hamilton. The character of Bethany is a strong one to say the ery least. With her persistence and confidence, she outshines all the other characters, making her relatable.One of the most memorable quotes in this move is said by the character herself, l do not need easy, I Just need possible. (4) What makes this role so strong is throughout the entire film, you embark on this Journey and you wait on Bethanys character to breakdown, quit, or to lose faith in everything. But she neer does. She shows us her strength, determination and will to find the positive outcomes in all tragic things. Although the character of Bethany Hamilton is extraordinary, Soul Surfer has at least two memorable characters.You may know her from her victory on the fourth season of American Idol, or the story of a small town okey girl turns platinum recording artist Carrie Underwood makes her acting debut, play the inspirational role of the youth groups pastor-Sarah Hill. Carrie shows that she has the ability to light up a big screen in her movie debut, b ut it is the character she plays that makes the movie as moving as it is. Sarah Hill tells Bethany l o not know why terrible things happen to us sometimes, but I have to believe something good is going to come out of this. (5) This inspires Bethany to get back into the water, and to not lose faith in not scarcely herself and her abilities, but also not lose faith in theology and the role he plays in her life. Sarahs compassion and Christian beliefs make this movie inspiring, relatable, and moving. Sarahs character demonstrates a strong Christian belief which remains true to the life of the real Bethany Hamilton by still having a huge moment to the story, Sarah does this ithout alienating the non-Christian audiences.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Sadanand Maiya Talking to TWB on receiving the Honorary Doctorate, he explicit his happiness and gratitude to the people of Karnataka and said that coming from a Brahmin family he was supposed to offer free food to poor and needy people, precisely in business he was helpless, and as an alternative, he had now stubborn to help the people in the field of Education under the monetary standard of his own trust namely Sadananda Maiya Charitable Trust.The PU blank out consisting of 6 floors volition be named after him at Jayanagar National College campus at an estimated cost of Rs. 6 crore sponsored by him with latest hi end technologies, and will start functioning shortly. For MCA from next academic year, four floors will be almost ready by June and the remaining 2 floors will be ready by October he said. Besides this, he has donated 40 computers to his foot town school and constructed PU Block at Kotta Viveka School and a well stocked library at Sneha Sagar School.Belonging to a r eputed hotelman family which had established the Mavalli Tiffin Room restaurant at Bangalore in 1924, Mr. Maiya imbibed the unlettered ability to CREATE foods with lasting taste and flavour even when he was studying in the school/college. While most of the boys at his geezerhood were more enamored by various extracurricular activities, Mr. Maiya chose to spend his waste time to observe and learn the intricate art/skill of making new/innovative foods from his forefathers at MTR restaurant. It was this informal exposure, which had made him a satisfying practitioner of art and science of cooking many traditional foods of southward India. Mr. Maiya was born at Parampaalli in Dakshina Kannada district (presently Udupi district) on July 13, 1949.After a brilliant school career in his native place, he established the Bachelor of Engineering course in Electrical engineering at BMS College of Engineering, University of Bangalore in the year 1973. Mr. Maiya, as a partner launched MTR Fo ods in 1976 and by 1978 established a small-scale facility to manufacture a soldiery of ready mix products for many popular foods, which became instant hits in the food market From a small-scale ready mix unit Mr. Maiya raised the stance of his organisation to a major player in the industrial landscape of the country with high visibility and consumer goodwill.MTR Foods Ltd., as seen today, was incorporated in 1997 with Mr. Maiya as Chairman and Managing Director and growth of the organization ever since has been phenomenal, with the annual swage of registering more than Rs. 1000 million during 2002-2003. Mr. Maiya was instrumental in transforming the status of his smart set from a small-scale unit to an ISO 9000 company with HACCP certification. Adoption of the internationally acclaimed -System industry Product in data processing, popularly known as wear down, by MTR Foods Ltd, for bringing up the management efficiency to be on par with