Wednesday, July 31, 2019

How does Shakespeare in his final act of Much Ado About Nothing Essay

Question) How does Shakespeare in his final act of the play put all the pieces of the puzzle together revealing every character’s true nature? Answer) The church scene has taken place and the watch has officially unearthed the truth. Act 4 has set the mood for the denouement of the play, where all the pieces of the puzzle are put together and the true nature of the play being a sunny comedy is preserved. Act 5 which is the final act of the play begins with a furious exchange of word between Leonato and Antonio on one side and Don Pedro and Claudio on the other. Don Pedro and Claudio are informed about Hero’s death but they fail to show any sign of remorse. Benedick enters and challenges Claudio to a duel. The situation seems to be getting more complicated just when Dogberry enters along with Borachio and Conrad bound by the watch. Borachio informs Don Pedro of the truth as he says, ‘what your wisdom could not discover, these shallow fools have brought to light.’ Don Pedro and Claudio seek repentance as Leonato asks Claudio to ‘Hang an epitaph upon Hero’s tomb and since he could not be Leonato’s soon-in-law’, Leonato asks him to be his nephew by marrying Antonio’s daughter. The play progresses and the audience for the first time witnesses a somewhat romantic dialogue between Benedick and Beatrice. Claudio, as promised by him, sings to Hero’s grave as he says, ‘Pardon goddess of the night those that slew thy virgin knight.’ The play now moves into its final scene where Hero is brought in front of Claudio and Claudio readily accepts her. Also, Benedick asks for Beatrice’s hand in marriage. The news of Don John being caught comes in. The characters however are in a jolly mood and thus postpone Don John’s predicament and start to revel. With this the play ends on a happy note. However, the final act is one of revelation. Not only does it put all the pieces of the play together but also exposes the true nature of the characters as well. To start with Hero is technically brought back to life both literally and metaphorically (as the false accusations are lifted). Her sanctity is preserved. However, she again appears to be a mere puppet of the patriarchal society as she readily agrees to marry Claudio and doesn’t even question her father. Claudio has lost respect in the eyes of the audience and his reputation takes one final hit as he appears to be a superficial human. He readily agrees to marry Leonato’s daughter, thus showing that he as a person doesn’t believe in true love. However, when he sees Hero, there is again a complete volte-face in his behaviour and seems to have fallen in love with Hero again. However, it is needless to say that this love is superficial as that is all that Claudio is capable of. Don Pedro who has remained quite all this while and has not put the powers vested in him to good use also somewhat redeems himself by repenting at Hero’s grave. Don Pedro is a mature and discerning character. However, during the play, the circumstances surrounding him cause him to take irrational decisions. However, in the final act he is quick to understand the situation when Benedick informs him that Don John has fled Messina and when he sees Borachio and Conrad bound by the watch. Leonato, a victim of self-deception like Claudio, thinks of himself as someone very righteous but doesn’t appear so in the church scene when it is most needed. Leonato also makes an unreasonable decision of ‘giving away’ his daughter to Claudio, the very man who had openly slandered her. The norms of the patriarchal society are so deeply ingrained in him that he fails to be a sensible character. This is seen especially when he easily forgives Don Pedro and Claudio but holds Margaret responsible as he says, ‘So are(innocent) the prince and Claudio who accused her upon the error that you heard debated. But Margaret was in some fault for this.’ The merry war also comes to an end as Beatrice and Benedick decide to marry each other however not without a final war of wits as both claim to love each other only to the extent that is reasonable. Their love is passionate and is deep-rooted unlike the courtly love of Claudio and Hero. This couple appears to be the stars of the play as they are probably the only characters who manage to maintain a good reputation in the eyes of the audience though initially both appear to be very garrulous in their demeanour. Don John along with his villains is help prisoner and their villainy is also brought to light. The minor characters also make short appearances in this act. Dogberry manages to pull off another set of malapropisms and entertains the audience with slapstick humour. The image of Dogberry being a bumbling idiot remains constant. The play comes to an end putting all the suspense and deceptions to rest. Though the play is a sunny comedy, there still remains contention over how happy the ending truly is considering that Hero has been asked to remarry Claudio. Also, the friendship between Benedick and Claudio has taken a turn for the worse. Clearly Don Pedro is also somewhat depressed as he is the only person who remains a bachelor and had earlier showed some sparks of attraction towards Beatrice. However, these our minor issues which are resolvable. The major issues have been resolved and the characters have also matured over the course of the play. Thus, it can be conclusively said that the play ends on a merry note. Act 5 serves as a well organised denouement as all the pieces of the puzzle are put together and the true nature of every character is revealed.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

A wide range of technologies Essay

In this report I will describe a wide range of technologies used by John Smith. John was involved in a car accident 5 years ago where he lost the use of his legs and also injured his spinal cord. He has used a wheel chair ever since. He works as a lecturer at imperial university where he teaches science. This has been deeply traumatic towards his physical, social and working aspects of his life. I am going to find out what technologies he uses to get by in life and to decrease the hardships he faces with his disabilities and also to find out how he uses these technologies for his personal, social and working aspects of his life. John is known by all his colleagues and is very popular in his work place. He also goes out with friends in his workplace on social gatherings like clubs but this doesn’t often happen because of the trouble he has coping with his disability. Technology 1 – Work Related One technology that John uses for work is his eyegaze. An eyegaze is a communication and control system for people with complex disabilities it’s a response interface that tracks the eye allowing hands free computer operation. By looking at certain control keys a person can do almost anything e.g. turn his house light’s on and off, open certain doors in his house and use the internet. The eyegaze is an excellent system used by many disabled people. John has an eyegaze computer system attached to his wheelchair. At his university he can monitor his students and use the interactive white board in his classroom to show his students pictures or set them question for class work. His eyegaze can also connect to his printer wirelessly so that he can print out question that he has set his class for homework or revision sheets for their test. Advantages Advantages of an eyegaze are that it allows people with complex disabilities like spinal cord paralysis to surf the net and do day-to-day tasks that would normally have been impossible in their current state of wellbeing. The eyegaze allows them to do their work and play games that they would normally have been unable to do due to the fact that they would not have been able to reach the keyboard with their disability. The eyegaze allows them to surf the net, keep in touch with others around the world and have video conferences. Disadvantages The eyegaze has many disadvantages is that it’s harder to use then a normal keyboard as it track you’re eye if you make the slightest twitch it will follow and go onto what you looked at. It is very difficult to use as it will follow every move you eye make and the slightest twitch could change the page or delete the sentence you were on. It could also turn off the lights when you want them on or shut a door you want open. Eyegazes are also very expensive and if they break down it take along time to replace because only a small minority of business produce the technology also the technology needs to shipped from other countries and that takes a lot of time. How the technology meets the Needs of the adult in a work related environment: To John his eyegaze is a great comfort as he needs to mark his class’s work and as he is disabled it would take along time with normal pen and paper so his students send it to him by email. He uses a special program which allows him by using his voice to mark their work and send it back to them on by one. His eyegaze allows him to do this without putting a great strain on his back whereas using a keyboard and mouse would have put a great strain on his spinal cord and caused him a great deal of pain. His eyegaze is very useful to him in work related situations as it allows him to go throw his work and lecture note quickly without any strain or pain on his back. WHAT WOULD HE DO WITHOUT THIS PIECE OF TECHNOLOGY Without his eyegaze John wouldn’t be able to monitor his students in class or set them work by email. Also he would have to use a normal mouse and keyboard to monitor his constant stream of emails which he receives from students, his colleagues and his doctors and this would have been a constant strain on his back and would have put him in a lot of pain. He would also be unable to automatically turn on lights or open doors as his eyegaze is connected wirelessly to his house and allows him to control his environment. Technology 2 – Socially Related One technology that John uses in his personal life is his electronic wheelchair which allows him to move around anywhere without the hassle of pushing the wheels. His electronic wheelchair has a portable eyegaze computer connected to his electrical wheelchair allowing him to take his work with him on the go. He uses his electrical wheelchair in a number of personally related activities. Thanks to his electrical wheelchair he can move anywhere around his house and area without straining his back by having to manually push the wheels. Advantages Electrical wheelchairs have many advantages including because they’re battery powered there is no hassle of moving it instead you push the control stick forward and the wheels move of their own accord. This is excellent as John has spinal paralysis which means that he cannot use his back and if he had a manual wheelchair then someone else would have to push him around and John has told me that â€Å"I don’t like having people wait on me as I had difficulty coping with the realism that I cannot use my back or legs anymore†. Disadvantages An electrical wheelchair has many disadvantages like: it is dependant on batteries therefore it will not work if it has no charge. Another disadvantage is that it cannot be folded and be put into the boot of a car. It is also very heavy and it can be quite a nuisance when going up the university stairs as he needs his students help as the ramps are on the other side of campus and it would take him an hour to get from his car to the back to his lecture hall. His wheelchair is also very expensive and if it breaks down it will take along time to repair. How the technology meets the Needs of the adult in a socially related environment: For John his electric wheelchair is one the best pieces of technology he can use as it is fast and reliable and allows him to go everywhere without the hassle and strain of a normal manual wheelchair. It is also a great relief as his back is often in pain and thanks to the wheelchairs special cushions he can lie back and have the special in-built massagers take his backs pain away. WHAT WOULD HE DO WITHOUT THIS PIECE OF TECHNOLOGY Without his wheelchair John would be unable to move around as efficiently as with his electric one. Also it would have put increased constant strain on his spinal cord and put him in a great deal of pain. He would be unable to take his work with him on the go as there would be no battery to connect the wires to. Without his electric wheelchair it would take him longer to go shopping or go anywhere else. Technology 3 – Personally Related Another piece of technology that John uses is his single fingered keyboard. The single fingered key board is a special type of keyboard which follows a new style of keyboard allowing the disabled person to be able to type on his/her computer without putting a lot of stress on themselves. Another definition for a single fingered keyboard is: The Maltron Single-handed keyboard is curved, with a single recess. It comes in left-handed and right-handed versions and is divided into four major blocks of keys: * 1 block for the fingers * 1 block for the thumb * 1 flat panel of keys to the side * 1 row of function keys along the top The keyboard has â€Å"push-on push-off† functions for the shift, control, and alt keys. The blocks for the fingers and thumb are mirror images of one another in the left-handed and right-handed versions (whereas the flat block and function key row are identical in both). Advantages There are a lot of advantages of a single-fingered keyboard like the fact that it doesn’t put a lot of strain on the individual using the keyboard. Another advantage is that the special shape and layout takes into account of the letters used in modern day typing. This is done to make the layout more efficient than a normal QWERTY keyboard and can save strain and unnecessary movement between keys. The user of this type of keyboard will find input than is ideal so it’s recommended that the user used a predictive word processor such as TEXTHELP or prototype to speed up entry and avoid frustration. Disadvantages Some disadvantages of using a single fingered keyboard is the fact that it’s very slow and takes long time to process a sentence you wrote and even longer for a paragraph. Also because of it’s design you’re hand may be to small to reach the buttons or too big and you may press the wrong button meaning that you would have to wait until the entire word or letter or sentence appeared before being able to change it. Needs of the adult in a personally related environment: John enjoys writing papers and articles for various scientific magazines. Thanks to his keyboard and software that increases the speed of appearance of words he can write fast without straining his back or being frustrated at the slowness of his keyboard. This piece of technology allows him to type fast as he is a fast single fingered typer and the keyboard allows him to do this without the fear of him injuring his back further. Without this technology John feels that he cannot have the same hands on affect to his work like so many of his colleagues. WHAT WOULD HE DO WITHOUT THIS PIECE OF TECHNOLOGY Without his technology John would have to use a Braille keyboard which in affect would have been more comfortable to use thanks to the special polymer which allows the user to type with his hands on the surface of the table but this would have injured John further as he cannot strain his back as that may prolong his recovery further. CONCLUSION In conclusion I feel that the technologies available to disabled people have been enhanced exponentionally as more people these day’s are concerned about the welfare of the disabled. This means that there is more awareness now than there was several years ago. The technology in our decade has also been enhanced therefore the development of newer, more practical technologies are easier to produce. The technologies in John’s life mean that he can now appreciate life and enjoy experiences like a normal, healthy person. However there is still room for improvement in the technologies in our life today. In the future we should expect life to become much better for the disabled as there has been much more research into how our body works so their may be development in flexible devices for the disabled.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Understanding Religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Understanding Religion - Essay Example Religion largely concerns an individual’s faith; whether he or she is a believer or not. Faith is the key pillar of all religions, and it is evident in all religions of the world. Without faith, in the existence of a supreme being or a higher mode of living, there would be no religions to talk about (Van, 2007). Religions all over the world strive to encourage a state of better coexistence between individuals and their environment. The earliest known religions have similarities with today’s religion because they still preach the same principles of living a pure life without sin. However, there exists a difference in how sin is defined, in the different religions of the world. Different religions have different teachings and ideas that are deemed necessary to be able to attain the set goal of religion, which varies depending on the type of an individual’s religious background (Van, 2007). Religion is seen as the greatest unifier for all mankind, and it forges a ve ry strong bond between believers. Traditions of a given community have contributed to the type of religion that develops around them, and the influence it has on their daily lives (Van, 2007). For instance, Asian countries have different religious practices from those of the Western world as evidenced by predominant Buddhism, in Asia, and Christianity, in Western countries. Their religions were entrenched early at the beginning of their cultures and traditions. This made it easier for their type of religious beliefs to be accepted earlier, in the life of each individual as the normal way of life and existence (Van, 2007). Religious scriptures have played a key role in shaping and spreading different religions around the globe. Scriptures are written documents like the Bible or the Quran that the believers of these religions believe contain sacred messages.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Spartan Warriors Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Spartan Warriors - Essay Example Spartan warriors' military fitness, as mentioned began specifically at birth. One of the immediate tests was when the mother of the child literally bathed in wine. This test already claimed its effectiveness in selecting who were the children fitted to be warriors through their survival (Schrader 2007). The test though didn't end there. Upon the survival of the child from the test, the decision about the child's future will be subject under the elders' judgment, if the child was to be reared as warrior or not. A child who survived but had founded with defective or weak was also considered useless. This child will be subject under the abandonment in the wild slopes of Mount Taygetos or Apothethae. The place was already known as a place of rejection (Schrader 2007). This practice was believed by the Spartans as way to preserve and maintain the high physical standard in their race. Spartan warriors were expected in absoluteness regarding physical strength and capability (Stark 1997). Another Spartan custom to eliminate the weak in their race was the throwing into a pit of the defective child. A cloak and nothing else would be the only clothing that provided for boys 12 years of age and below, was also a test for their physical health that was essential for fitness. Another test for their living condition was through hunger. ... Growing up in Spartan society was tougher for the Spartan boys than the girls. Officials assembled the young boys for primary fighting orientation. Spartan boys were expected to be grouped by age. They would then fight with each other, and the toughest boy would be the leader. (Connoly 1979) Another test for their living condition was through hunger. Spartan boys were being purposely underfed. This condition was to test them their hunting skills, up to the extent of motivating them to steal purposely the food in the supplies. Along with the test of hunger, they were also commanded to sleep in the bare ground. In fact, during the earliest days of Sparta, a citizen's life was completely and strictly submitted under the Spartan state. One of the moral trainings of Spartan warriors was the obedience to their laws (Connoly 1979). At this early stage, Spartan boys were already being exposed in the ruthlessness of killing. This was to set them prepared for the future military life that awaits them. They were being taught handling of arms and armor. They were also encouraged to develop their own guile and savage skill necessary for fighting. They were even enforced to experience actual murdering and slaughtering once they were being sent to hunt for declining slaves. Strict discipline in fighting was also enforced to them. (Paparykarious 2000) During boyhood, the young citizen was required to leave home for military boarding school. It was in their law that young Spartan was required to serve in the army, from age seven up to thirty years of age (Connoly 1979). In the army, their education put emphasis on physical toughness, faithful in military ranks, and absolute obedience to orders. They are identified as hoplite or a

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Macbeth Act 5 Scene 5 lines 17-51. How does this extract reflect the Essay

Macbeth Act 5 Scene 5 lines 17-51. How does this extract reflect the development of Macbeth's character Link this extract with the rest of the play - Essay Example After all, the witches had told him that â€Å"none of woman born shall harm Macbeth† (Act IV, scene 5, l. 80) and that â€Å"Macbeth shall never vanquishd be until/Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill/Shall come against him† (ll. 91-93). In Act V, Scene 5, however, the unthinkable happens as Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane, heralding the downfall of Macbeth. Act V, scene 5 is, as may have been deduced from the introductory paragraph, the turning point of the play, that one scene where everything comes to a head. At the outset of the scene, Macbeth orders his men to hang his banners on the castle walls, confidently expressing conviction in his own immunity, his invincibility. The castle will hold and he will not be harmed, not only because the wood can never come to the hill but because no mortal, no man of woman born, has the power to harm him. At the height of his confidence in his own immortality, however, he learns of Lady Macbeth’s death. Reality is trying to break into Macbeth’s delusions and illusions but he staves it off and, in his own way, escapes confrontation with the reality of his wife’s death: Macbeth is not acting as unfeelingly to his wife’s death as these lines would suggest. Instead, as he stands at a crossroads between mortality and immortality (will he die or will his interpretation of the prophecy prove true) he rejects the thought of immortality, of the inevitability of death. Added to that, with what he is confronting at the moment, he cannot, at the psychological and emotional levels, deal with his wife’s death. Macbeth, as evident in the two lines quoted in the preceding – in his reaction to his wife’s death, has changed. Earlier in the play, he was seemingly entirely dependant on Lady Macbeth, it was her ambition which drove him to action, and her words which mapped out the nature of his acts. He

Friday, July 26, 2019

Are Labor Unions Necessary Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Are Labor Unions Necessary - Research Paper Example Labor unions have been recognized for the unrelenting fight for the social welfare of the workers. In a number of countries, governments have succumbed to the pressure of labor unions to raise the living standards for their workers. In the past, the public sector employees and political parties formed the majority of the labor unions population. Workers in the public sector are many, and they cannot individually fight for their interests at work. This, therefore, necessitates the use of labor movements that act as the representative of their interests. According to the AFL-CIO, trade unions have been experiencing a decline from the onset of the 21st century because many employers, especially in the private sector, have endeavored to provide the best working conditions for the employees. In the public sector, however, trade unions have remained the single fighting voice for most of the employees due to their numbers. Major companies have stressed the need for national governments to r espect the rights of workers, raise their minimum wage rates and provide a better working environment (Meng 1638).These countries include India and China that are currently experiencing an increasing trend in production. Many companies have relocated their manufacturing operations to countries like China because of the low cost of production probably resulting from the low cost of labor (O'Grady et al.). These countries experience more labor union actions than more developed countries because of the dilapidated working conditions.

What Impact Did The Boeing - Airbus Dispute Have On The European Union Essay

What Impact Did The Boeing - Airbus Dispute Have On The European Union - Essay Example As such, the European Union is one of the powerful forces after the present round of polygonal trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization. The main purpose of the New Round is to put growth at the heart of the world trade structure in a way that will help them battle inflation. The World Trade Organization was recognized in 1995 as a consequence of the Uruguay Round of polygonal trade discussions. It is an international organization that sets universal rules of trade among nations. The central part of the World Trade Organization system, understood as the multilateral trading system, its Members take up the World Trade Organization agreements, which lay down the permissible ground rules for international trade as well as the market-opening obligations. The World Trade Organization is collection of governments and political bodies and is a member-driven organization with conclusions mainly taken on an accord basis. Membership entails a stability of rights and obligations. By October 2004, 149 countries had connected the World Trade Organization, with approximately twenty-five negotiating to sign up. The main and most complete unit is the European Union with its twenty-five Member States. Certainly, while the Member States organize their places in Brussels and Geneva, the European Union Commission only speaks for the European Union at more or less all World Trade Organization conferences. ... also the second-chief defense supplier in the world, and the main civil aircraft producer in the world in terms of aircraft orders after long straggling Airbus for the past five years, and the main exporter in the United States. Airbus, which first transported additional planes than Boeing in 2003, will preserve that escort for 2005 as it anticipate to sell 370 planes in contrast with 290 (Fisher, 2002, P 1). Boeing's two major sections are Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (IDS), responsible for military and space products, and Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA), accountable for civil airliners. Boeing has long been the principal in the world aviation industry. Having lived the unstable seminal years of the industry, Boeing's first achievement was as a manufacturer of military aircraft during and after World War II. In the commercial aircraft division, its first achievement happened in the 1950s with the expansion of the 707, which became the world's first victorious jetliner. Boeing then congealed its leading place in the commercial market in the 1970s with the growth of the 747. Airbus most commonly known as simply Airbus only, its foundtion in Toulouse, France, is the globes main commercial aircraft producer. It was built-in 2001 under French law. Airbus was priorly known as Airbus Industries and is merely just named Airbus. Airbus is mutually held by European Aeronautic, Defense, and Space Company (80%) and BAE Systems (20%), European Union two principal military suppliers and producers. For 2005, its CEO is Gustav Humbert. Airbus utilize around 52,000 people in numerous European Union countries. Manufacturing takes place at Toulouse France, Hamburg Germany, Barcelona Spain, and Chester UK. The foremost opponent of Airbus is Boeing, with which it fights an strong

Thursday, July 25, 2019

What Impact Has Corporate Power Had On The Social World Essay

What Impact Has Corporate Power Had On The Social World - Essay Example To meet this desire of the stakeholders most of the corporate houses have a specified set of social goals which is treated as a part of the overall business activities. Nowadays, the objectives of the business can no more be limited to achieving business profits. It cannot be considered as a ‘money generating machine’ set up with the sole purpose of profit generation. Previously, the businesses were established with some short term goals with little concern for the long term scenario. However, in the current environment the focus of the business has shifted from short term to long term perspective. This renewed focus is beneficial for the companies as well as the society in general. In fact the businesses now play a significant role in the society. They take part in a number of social activities. The companies direct a significant amount of funds towards achieving the social needs. The funds are used for the development of schools, institutions, parks, etc. The big corporate houses sponsor sports and cultural programs. The corporate actively indulge in functions other than pursuing their business interests. The companies thus play an important role in the development of the society. Various factors in the society have led to the creation of a climate that foster the criticism and prosperity of the business. While some of these factors are inter-related yet again there are some factors that are independent. Affluence and Education- The two factors- education and affluence have developed alongside. The empowerment of the society has raised the expectations from institutions like the businesses. Affluence includes aspects like wealth level, disposable income and living standard of the society. The measures of standard of living in US suggest a continuous growth over the decades however this growth has curtailed in the last five years. Besides a rising standard of living an improvement in the formal education has also raised the expectations of the society. A combination of these factors has laid the foundations of a society that encourages criticisms of the business. Increased awareness through internet and television- Though the reach of the print media is limited , the electronic media i.e. television is accessible to a wider populace. The television facilitates transmission of the information to wider audiences thereby creating an environment of business criticism. News programs The business criticism appears on the electronic media in three ways. Firstly, this is through the news shows and investigative programs. A study conducted by the â€Å"Corporate Reputation Watch† senior executives highlights that media criticism and irresponsible or unethical behavior can be a serious threat to the reputation of a company. While a majority of the business leaders are of the view that the news programs are against them and therefore overstate the facts and exaggerate the issue but the journalist see it in a different light. The

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Royal Mail Literature Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Royal Mail Literature Review - Essay Example This paper covers the theoretical concepts of the strategic processes implemented by Royal Mail that include its internal and external analysis. The review covers a wide variety of different sources to locate various types of information about the company. Furthermore, a detailed research has been done on the management of the company that includes the management of its workforce and the future targets that are desired to achieve. Organization Overview Royal Mail is one of the biggest postal and courier service company in United Kingdom. It has various subsidiaries which include Royal Mail, Post Office and Parcel-force all over the globe. The company also offers various services which include postal mail services, parcel delivery systems and general logistics systems through their subsidiaries. It mainly focuses on the deliveries of letters and packages to different parts of the world by all the regions in the United Kingdom. Royal Mail has nearly 113,000 post boxes and 14,300 post o ffice branches all over the country which collects letters, packages and parcels from many different businesses (Boxall & Purcell, 2003). These letters and packages are further processed through 70 mail centers, 8 regional distribution centers and 3,000 delivery offices that are located in different parts of the country (Goddard & Melville, 2004). Royal Mail is indeed one of the most successful organizations in United Kingdom and holds a unique place in the global market. Internal Analysis Royal Mail is one of the oldest courier service companies that is controlled by the government of United Kingdom. As far as its internal analysis is concerned, the core strategies that are implemented by this organization are listed below: Pricing Strategy The strategies of Royal are based upon customer centric approach and appropriate managerial implications are considered when they are implementing their own strategies. This organization strictly works on the principle that since the needs of th e customers vary with time therefore they should adapt to these changes that can benefit them in both the short and the long run (Barney & Clark, 2007). Similarly the customers should also believe that the products and services offered by this organization are value added and that they are meant for the targeted customers only. As far as the pricing strategy of this organization is concerned it mostly focuses to offer their services at lower rates that can be afforded by customers of every class. Although there are many pricing schemes that can be implemented by the organizations such as premium pricing, competitive pricing and discount pricing. However, in the initial stage when this company was launched they adapted the premium pricing as the product was new in the market and the customers were also responding quite well. But as the company grew older the company focused on discount pricing and after that competitive pricing options were also introduced because new competitors wer e entering into the market. Later they also implemented zonal pricing in order to obtain a competitive advantage in both the short and the long run. Marketing Strategy The marketing of Royal Mail is very proactive and that is the reason why they are able to implement different marketing strategies effectively. These strategies are usually created by the decision makers of the company. It is

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

ROLES OF Contract Management Agency (DCMA) and Defense Contract Audit Research Paper

ROLES OF Contract Management Agency (DCMA) and Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) - Research Paper Example Property clearance as well as Plant clearance is part of the roles of the Defense Contract Management Agency. Property clearance refers to the role of selling and negotiating terms of sale of different products from the United States defense store. This may include disposing off old equipment or sell of military products. This agency caters for the negotiations. Plant clearance may refer to the selling of plants owned by the defense department. This may include production plants and facilities or warehouses. This is the role of this agency and it works efficiently to help reduce the government’s efforts of getting agents to dispose off its idle assets (Krahmann 2010). The contract management agency is also tasked with the responsibility of terminating contracts that do not meet the agreed stipulations. This helps the government work efficiently and in an organized manner by keeping track of well performing contractors and firing those that lag its operations. This is also pert of quality assurance that the agency is concerned with. The agency is responsible for ensuring the government gets the best of services that there is on the market (Calvaresi 2008). While dealing with acquisition and clearance, the agency also organizes transport for such activities. This transportation support is vital so as to reduce costs in contracting private firms especially where matters of security are a huge concern. The agency is also tasked with the responsibility of predicting the supply chain. This is necessary so as to enable the government to budget wisely on needed equipment and services at the best prices in the market. The defense contract management agency ensures that there are no counterfeit products that are used by the federal agencies of the United States (Calvaresi 2008). Where the government has made loses or unwise spending in its budget, it is the responsibility of the Defense

Monday, July 22, 2019

Risk of Schizophrenia Essay Example for Free

Risk of Schizophrenia Essay Over the last few decades Schizophrenia has become embedded in mainstream vernacular as any behavior or emotional response that is out of touch with reality. However even with its popularity heightened through movies and headline news stories, schizophrenia is still one of the most enigmatic and least understood disorders of the brain. With current research focused on the role of neurobiology and functioning on a cellular level, investigative analysis has merited new innovations towards its source, however a single organic cause for the disorder still eludes scientists. Although the foundation of the affliction is still unknown, its effects are well documented and over the next few pages will show the changes in the brain as the disease develops, and how those alterations impact the rest of the body and alter various other functions throughout the viscera. The term Schizophrenia was first coined in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist Dr. Eugen Bleuler and translates from the original Greek as schizo (split) and phrene (mind), making a literal translation of split-mind, in reference to the disjointed thinking of those with the disease (Johnstone, 1994). Although the term was first used in the early twentieth century, according to scholars a ‘madness’ was described in The Ebers Papyrus, a collection of ancient Egyptian medical papers dating back to 1550 BC, which accurately depicts some of schizophrenia’s symptoms (Johnstone, 1994). With its possible documentation over three millennia ago and its symptoms documented in a myriad of medical journals throughout history, the disorder itself is very rare. Those who are at the highest risk of manifestation are offspring whose parents are both schizophrenic, although even at this rate the risk of manifestation is about forty-six percent. Globally however its prevalence is about 0.9 percent or fifty-eight million people worldwide (Hollandsworth, 1990). According to James G. Hollandworth of the University of Southern Mississippi, schizophrenia is primarily characterized by a disintegration of reality perception, consciousness, and thought process which results in a debilitated proficiency in social and professional faculties (Hollandworth, 1990). While schizophrenia can most arguably be classified as a predominantly genetic affliction, there are others factors which can contribute to its development even without a genetic predisposition. These elements include birth defects such as hypoxia and low birth rate, neuroanatomical anomalies, viral infections, along with low IQ and cerebral  atrophy (Hollandsworth, 1990). While these components in themselves are not sufficient enough to cause the disorder, they result in an increased risk for developing the disease. One theory for the cause of schizophrenia that has been studied with great validity is the dopamine hypothesis. This theory postulates that schizophrenia is caused by an overabundance of the dopamine-dependent areas of the brain causing an imbalance that affects the entire system (Hollandsworth, 1990). For this reason many of today’s schizophrenia treatment drugs inhibit dopamine receptor activity in an attempt to return it to its natural equilibrium. Although even with advances in modern science and new drugs being developed every day, the illness is still only treatable and its symptoms still emerge even with proper medication. Even with its origin unknown, scientists have discovered several chromosomes which when damaged or mutated, greatly increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. The chromosomes in particular that act as catalysts are chromosome numbers twenty-two, six, and eleven (Klar, 2004). Chromosome six contains several genes that are linked with immune response which has given rise to the belief that schizophrenia has some association with weakened disease fighting agents. While damage to this chromosome may be linked to the source of the ailment, it may only be the jump starter that kicks off the path to developing the illness. For as scientists know, a lacking immune response caused by chromosome damage can theoretically leave the body vulnerable to infection, which are facilitators that can bring about the emergence of the disorder (Hollandsworth, 1990). Chromosome twenty-two on the other hand is linked with the dopamine hypothesis as this area houses enzymes that aid in transporting neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters, mainly catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are essential for the breakdown of dopamine. Any disruptions in this particular area can trigger an overabundance or shortage of dopamine, potentially resulting in developing positive or negative schizophrenia symptoms (Chakravarti, 2002). Lastly, chromosome eleven has been associated with schizophrenia on the grounds of genetic translocation, or a chromosome abnormality caused by faulty rearrangements of various strands of DNA. These faults can occur in any number of genes, however during this process it occurs at times pivotal to cell division, making it easy for genes to be incorrectly rearranged (Klar, 2004). When this happens  it can potentially inhibit the development of lateralization of brain function and act as a precursor not only schizophrenia, but other forms of mental illness as well as cognitive impairments (Klar, 2004). Once the subject has developed schizophrenia it affects the brain in very specific ways. When the disorder itself first begins to emerge its early symptoms manifest themselves in a period called The Prodormal Phase (Neale ump; Oltmanns, 1980). During this phase, which occurs anywhere from six to thirty months before the disease truly emerges, the person may experience social withdrawal, dysphoria, and irritability. As the disorder progresses the symptoms may become more intense, and newer or ‘positive’ symptoms may begin to surface. These positive symptoms can include visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thought processes. In severe cases of thought process deterioration or cognitive slippage, a person can develop schizophasia or ‘word salad’ where a person’s speech is completely incoherent with no understandable thought or message. Following the positive symptoms of the illness, ‘negative’ symptoms can appear as well. These symptoms are aspects of the person’s personality that have been negated by the disease. They are most commonly expressed by the person’s flat or expressionless demeanor, apathy, very little displayed emotion, and continued peculiar behavior (Hollandsworth, 1990). After schizophrenia has completely manifested itself, the patient is usually classified into one of four types. These types are paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, and undifferentiated. Those in the paranoid group display an obsession over their delusions or ha ve hallucinations specifically related to a certain subject or idea, and are usually the most functional of all schizophrenics (Johnstone, 1994). Disorganized types are typically ones who display little emotion and act in a disjointed and inarticulate manner, while catatonic schizophrenics are merely ones who appear in torpor and display lethargic indolence. The undifferentiated type however is hybrid of the three previous types and is a miscellaneous combination of all their symptoms combined (Johnstone, 1994). While the outward symptoms may be relatively easy to recognize, inside the brain is a totally different matter. Schizophrenia can cause structural changes in the brain even though a specific cause for these changes is still unknown. These changes in brain structure are illustrated by larger ventricles, a thicker corpus collosum, a decrease in dendrite  spines in the frontal lobe, disordered hippocampal pyramidal cells, and a shrinkage of the cerebellar vermis, which is mainly responsible for perception. In some studies malformed neuronal migration has been observed which can lead to disjointed thoughts as well as an overall shrinkage of the hippocampus and amygdala (Johnstone, 1994). Due to these changes, a person suffering from the disorder can have reduced functioning in the frontal lobe which can affect their logic and critical thinking skills as well as their ability to successfully plan ahead. This reduced functioning is displayed in the Wisconsin card sorting test, which is administered to measure possible brain damage and assess the functioning of the frontal lobe. Schizophrenics who participate in the test show an inability to successfully transfer their attention to the rules of the exam once they begin. Functional imaging has also shown a lack of activity in the right hemisphere of the frontal lobe during their partaking, which does not increase as the task is administered. It is also shown that in a study by a Dr. Nagy in 1963, that of 260 cases of schizophrenia, roughly fifty-eight percent of the group had some form of cerebral atrophy (Johnstone, 1994). On a cellular level schizophrenia symptoms are thought to be caused by an overabundance of neurotransmitters released between neurons. These neurotransmitters, mainly dopamine and serotonin, in excess can cause hallucinations and delusions which are referred to as ‘positive’ symptoms. Too little of these neurotransmitters however can result in lack of emotion and motivation which mirror the ‘negative’ symptoms of the disorder. Another type of cell affected by schizophrenia is the pyramidal cell in the prefrontal cortex, or the forehead area of the brain. These cells, which are a type of neuron that serve primarily as excitation units in the prefrontal cortex, are shown to have a decrease in basilar dendrite numbers. These basilar dendrites arise from the base of the pyramidal cell’s soma, and with a decrease in their numbers it can indicate a shortened synaptic surface area resulting in possible fallacious thought processing (Broadbelt, Byne, ump; Jon es, 2002). Pyramidal cells in the hippocampus are also known to be affected by the disorder can and cause many of the cells in that area to be thrown into disarray, causing cognitive malfunctions. The treatment of this disorder can vary greatly depending on the person; however dopamine inhibiting antipsychotics are a very popular remedy. Although prevalent, these  medications are not perfect and many scientists claim there is still no concrete connection that schizophrenia is exclusively a result of faulty dopaminergic transmissions (Neale ump; Oltmanns, 1980). It has also been noted that many of the dopamine inhibiting drugs serve only to combat the positive symptoms and leave many of the negative symptoms such as emotional absence unaffected. Another treatment that is still widely used, but much less common is electroconvulsive therapy or shock therapy. This treatment is still very controversial but there has been success in treating schizophrenia symptoms completely, although many patients relapse within six months. Studies have also indicated that although this treatment can be effective there are risks of permanent brain damage. According to Dr. Peter Breggin (2008), a psychiatrist at the State University of New York, shock therapy in animal testing showed statistically significant brain structural abnormalities when compared to animals without it. His study showed the electrical shocks caused changes in the nerve cell walls causing gliosis, or a profound increase in the number of astrocytes in impaired areas of the central nervous system (Breggin, 2008). In conclusion, schizophrenia is unique disorder that affects the brain in many ways, yet manifests itself differently from person to person. As there is no tangible rubric for how the disorder will impact the person, it can be a difficult illness to treat. Its effects on the brain, from enlarged ventricles to a decline in dendrite spines, shows the major impact the illness can have on living a normal life. Although the disorder afflicts just over fifty-eight million people worldwide it is still devastating to those who are affected and while the medical community makes leaps and bounds in understanding the disease, a cure is still far from the horizon. With psychology grant money from universities being invested predominantly in neuropsychology, perhaps sometime in the near future scientists will be able to fully understand this illness and find a successful and permanent cure for it.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The History Of Cleopatra VII

The History Of Cleopatra VII Cleopatra VII was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh. After her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty (a royal family which ruled Egypt during the Hellinistic Period-323 BC to 146 BC) of Ancient Egypt. She is therefore considered to be a descendant of one of Alexander the Greats generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexanders death. Cleopatra learned Egyptian unlike other Ptolemies who spoke Greece and refused Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra VII ruled originally with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes (commonly name as Auletes and who ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC) and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. Later she became a sole ruler. As pharaoh, she kept good relations with Julius Caesar (Roman General who played a critical role in the transformation from Roman Republic to Roman Empire) that solidified her grip on the throne. After Caesars assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesars legal heir and she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and hence Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra was an Egyptian pharaoh but she basically belonged to the Ptolemaic dynasty which was Hellenistic. Cleopatras mother language was Greek but still was the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis (a Goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs) and thus was considered the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. The above picture displays the bust of Cleopatra VII who is depicted as a great beauty and her legacy still survives in various works of art and dramas. William Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenets opera, Clà ©opà ¢tre are some examples of dramatizations inspired by Cleopatras life. REIGN 51 BC TO 12 August 30 BC SUCCESSOR None (Egypt was annexed by Rome) SPOUSE Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator Ptolemy XIV Julius Caesar (not legally wed) Mark Antony FATHER Ptolemy XII Auletes MOTHER Cleopatra V of Egypt BORN 69 BC DIED 12th August 30 BC (aged 39) BURIAL Burial was done in Alexandria, Egypt Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War In the Roman civil war between the Caesarean party which was led by Mark Antony and Octavian and party led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus who assassinated Julius Caesar. Cleopatra sided with the Caesarean party because of her past. Brutus and Cassius together and sailed to the East of the Roman Empire and conquered large areas and established their military bases. Now Cassius wanted to invade Egypt to seize the treasures of that country and to take the revenge from the queen as she refused his request to send him supplies punish the queen for her refusal of Cassius request to send him supplies and her support for Dolabella (a Roman General). At that time in Egypt there was famine and an epidemic which became an important reason why Cassius thought that Egypt could easily be conquered. But still he could not execute the invasion of Egypt because at the end of 43 BC Brutus called him back to Smyrna (an ancient city located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia now located in Turkey). Cassius tried to blockade Cleopatras way to the Caesareans. Nevertheless Cleopatra sailed with her military from Alexandria to the west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarean leaders but she was forced to return to Egypt because her ships were damaged by a violent storm and she became ill. Relationship with Julius Caesar Cleopatra became Caesars mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesorian , which means little Caesar. At this point Caesar cancelled his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatras claim to the throne. After a war lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile (longest river of the world situated in Egypt) and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne and assigned her younger brother Ptolemy IV as her new co-rule. Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesars stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wanted his son to be the heir of Julius Caesar but instead of making his son caesorian, his heir, he chose his grandnephew Octavian. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesars family), which was situated at the Forum Julium (a forum built by Julius Caesar in Rome). Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC. At that time Cleopatra was in Rome along with her outrages. After Caesars assassination Cleopatra returned to Egypt with her relatives. After the death of Ptolemy XIV who was allegedly poisoned by his elder sister, Cleopatra made her son Caesorian, her successor and gave her an epithet (an epithet as a descriptive word or phrase given to someone) Theos Philopator Philometor which means Father and mother loving God. Cleopatra and Mark Antony Coin of Antony and Cleopatra In 41 BC, Mark Antony, one of the triumvirs (name historians give to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavians, later known as Augustus) who ruled Rome after the assassination of Julius Caesar. Dellius had to summon Cleopatra to Tarsus (a historical city in south eastern Turkey) to meet there Antony and answer questions about her loyalty. During the Roman civil war she allegedly paid much money to Cassius due to which Antony lost his trust on Dellius. Actually it seemed that in reality Antony wanted Cleopatras promise to support his war against the Parthians (citizens of Parthia a region of North eastern Iran). Cleopatra had Antony order the death of her sister Arsinoe to safeguard herself and her son, Caesarion. Arsinoe at that time was living at the temples of Artemis in Ephesus (Artemis is one of the religious Greek deities which is situated in Ephesus which is an ancient Greek city). On 25 December 40 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to twins fathered by Antony, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II. Four years later, Antony visited Alexandria again on route to make war with the Parthians. Donations of Alexandria was a religious-political statement by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands of Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatras children and granted them many titles especially for Caesarian who was the son of Julius Caesar. Donations of Alexandria was announced in late 34 BC, followed by Antonys conquest of Armenia (a client state of roman and Persian Empires stretching from Caspian to Mediterranean sea), Cleopatra and Caesarian were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus. Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. Donations of Alexandria were also a main reason for The Final war of the Roman Republic. Cleopatra was also given the title of Queen of Kings by Antonio. Her enemies in Rome feared that Cleopatra was planning a war of revenge that was between the whole of East against the Rome and establish herself as empress of the world at Rome and inaugurate a new universal kingdom. Caesarian was given co-regency with Cleopatra and was also given many titles such as god, son of god and king of kings. Egyptians thought Cleopatra to be a reincarnation of goddess Isis, as she called herself (NEA Isis). Relations between Antony and Octavian finally broke down in 33 BC, and Octavian declared a war against Egypt. In 31 BC Antonys forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium. Cleopatra was present with an army of her own. But Octavians invaded Egypt in the Battle of Actium and thus Antony and Cleopatra lost this war and thus the Roman Empire took over the Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antonys armies deserted to Octavian on August 1, 30 BC. DEATH This picture above shows the death of Cleopatra which was drawn by Guido Cagnacci in 1658. There have been many stories about the death of Cleopatra VII such as according to the ancient sources; particularly the Roman ones think that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her. The oldest source is Strabo who was a Greek historian, geographer and a philosopher says that there are two stories: That she applied a toxic ointment OR That she was bitten by an asp. Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus had her killed. In 2010, the German historian Christophe Schaefer challenged all other theories, declaring that the queen had actually been poisoned and died from drinking a mixture of poisons. After studying historic texts and consulting with toxicologists, the historian concluded that the asp could not have caused a slow and pain free death, since the asp (Egyptian cobra) venom paralyses parts of the body, starting with the eyes, before causing death. Schaefer and his toxicologist Dietrich Mebs decided Cleopatra used a mixture of hemlock, wolfsbane and opium. Plutarch, writing about 130 years after the event has also mentioned the asp to be the major reason for Cleopatras death. He reports that Octavian succeeded in capturing Cleopatra in her Mausoleum after the death of Antony. He ordered his freedman Epaphroditus to guard her to prevent her from committing suicide because he allegedly wanted to present her in his triumph. But Cleopatra still was able to suicide by provoking the asp (cobra) to bite her on her arm. Suetonius, writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra died from an asp bite. Shakespeare also gave his own theory on the death of Cleopatra which gives us the image of Cleopatra clutching the snake to her breast. Before him, it was generally agreed that she was bitten on the arm. The site of their Mausoleum (a monument) is uncertain, though it is thought by the Egyptian Antiquities Service, to be in or near the temple of Taposiris Magna south west of Alexandria. Cleopatras son by Caesar, Caesarian, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians, after Alexandria fell to Octavian. Caesarean was captured and killed by Octavians. CONCLUSION: Why the women in world history were not given due importance? By taking the example of Cleopatra VII, the reasons why women were not given importance are: Cleopatra being the mother was more concerned about her children. She always tried her children to get throne unlike Julius Caesar who chose his grandnephew. Women are more directed towards their own children rather than caring about their kingdom. Cleopatra was not much concerned for her empire or the kingdom and was more aligned towards her family. Donations of Alexandria is the most important example which clearly explains that Cleopatra cared only about her family. She could have given those empires to some more educated or strong and a better person which could have helped her and Antony in the battle against Octavians. Well these were the main reasons why I think women were not given due importance in history.

Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership Compare and contrast between Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership. What are the significant differences between the two leadership models? Give relevant examples. 1.0 What is Leadership? Leadership has been described as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist or procure the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. It is the way of organizing a group of people for the purpose of achieving a common goal. A leader is the person to who is capable of guiding, inspiring and associating others with the dream goal. In addition, there are various types of leadership models which include transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and charismatic leadership and so on. In this contest, transactional leadership and transformational leadership will be compared and contrasted. 2.0 Description Transactional Leadership Transactional leadership is a term used to classify a formally known group leadership theories that inquire the interactions between leaders and followers. A transactional leader focuses more on a series of transactions. This person is interested in looking out for oneself, having exchange benefits with their subordinates and clarifies a sense of duty with rewards and punishments to reach goals. The transactional leadership style developed by Bass is based on the hypothesis that followers are motivated through a system of rewards and punishment. The transactional leaders view of the leader / follower relationship is one of quid pro quo or this for that. If the follower does something good, then they will be rewarded. If the follower does something wrong, then they will be punished. Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances the motivation, morale and performance of his followers through a variety of mechanisms. These include connecting the followers sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimize their performance. The theory behind transformational leaders, on the other hand is based, on the hypothesis that leaders can exploit a need of the follower. These particular needs are not based on quid pro quo transactions, but higher order needs. These needs are those of the total person, and are closely aligned with the internal motivational factors of the follower. So at one end of the spectrum we have transactional leaders that are making many deals with those being led. On the other end of the spectrum, we have transformational leaders, which are looking to satisfy a greater need of an individual. 3.0 Mission Transactional Leader: approaches followers with an eye to exchanging one thing for another à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Burns pursues a cost benefit, economic exchange to met subordinates current material and psychic needs in return for contracted services rendered by the subordinate à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. Bass Here, transformational leaders make exchange of work with their followers for benefit or rewards. Followers are motivated with the rewards being given. Transformational Leader: recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential followerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (and) looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Burns The leader who recognizes the transactional needs in potential followers but tends to go further, seeking to arouse and satisfy higher needs, to engage the full person of the follower à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ to a higher level of need according to Maslows hierarchy of needs à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Bass Here, transformational leaders tend to focus on the move to change the followers and the organization. In addition, as explained by Bass, the transactional leaders focus on the organizational work within the organizational culture as the way it exists; on the other hand, the transformational leaders try to bring changes to the organizational culture. 4.0 Personal characteristics Transactional Directive Dominating Action-Oriented Transformational Self Confident Assertive Seizes Opportunities Tolerates Risk Uses Systems Thinking 5.0 Characteristics of Transactional leaders 1. Contingent rewards: Transactional leaders link the goal to rewards, clarify expectations, provide necessary resources, set mutually agreed upon goals, and provide various kinds of rewards for successful performance. They set SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely) goals for their subordinates. These leaders work on some aspects which include; Exchange of rewards for effort contracted. Rewards for achieving goals promised. Accomplishments recognized. Clear goals and recognition once they are reached is held to result in individuals and groups achieving expected levels of performance. 2. Management by exception (active): Transactional leaders actively monitor the work of their subordinates, watch for deviations from rules and standards and taking corrective action to prevent mistakes. These personalities also include; Standards specified by leader. Deviations are searched from the rules and standards. Corrective action taken quickly if necessary. May involve follower punishment. 3. Management by exception (passive): Transactional leaders intervene only when standards are not met or when the performance is not as per the expectations. They may even use punishment as a response to unacceptable performance. These leaders have some uniqueness which include; Leader awaits emergence of problems before acting. Intervenes only if standards are not met. 4. Passive-avoidant/Laissez-faire: The leader provides an environment where the subordinates get many opportunities to make decisions. The leader himself abdicates responsibilities and avoids making decisions and therefore the group often lacks direction. This can also be explained as; Agreements are not specified; there are no expectations set; and goals and standards are avoided. 6. 0 Characteristics of Transformational Leadership 1. Charisma or idealized influence The degree to which the leader behaves in admirable ways that cause followers to identify with the leader. Charismatic leaders display convictions, take stands and appeal to followers on an emotional level. This is about the leader having a clear set of values and demonstrating them in every action, providing a role model for their followers. 2. Inspirational motivation The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. It is also important that this visionary aspect of leadership be supported by skills that allow the leader to articulate his or her vision with precision and power in a compelling and persuasive way. 3. Intellectual stimulation The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers ideas. Leaders with this trait stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. 4. Individualized consideration or individualized attention The degree to which the leader attends to each followers needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the followers concerns and needs. This also encompasses the need to respect and celebrate the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team (it is the diversity of the team that gives it its true strength). Transformational Leaders Motivating for performance beyond expectations. Inspiring for missions beyond self interest. Instilling confidence to achieve performance. Transformational leadership goes beyond transactional leadership. Transactional Leaders Motivating for performance at expected levels. Initiating structure to clarify the task and roles. Stressing the link between reward and goal achievement. Uses agreed upon performance to motivate. Performance beyond expectations 7.0 Assumptions Transformational leaders People get inspired by a person then they will follow that person. Great things can be achieved by person with vision and passion. Things are gotten done by the way they are injected with enthusiasm and energy. Transactional Leaders Followers/Employees are motivated by reward and punishment. Orders are given by the superiors, and the subordinates have to obey the orders. These subordinates are not self-motivated rather they need to be intimately monitored and controlled in order to get the work done from them. 8.0 Differences Transitional leaders Transactional leaders are aware of the link between the effort and reward Transactional leadership is responsive and its basic orientation is dealing with present issues Transactional leaders rely on standard forms of inducement, reward, punishment and sanction to control followers Transactional leaders motivate followers by setting goals and promising rewards for desired performance Transactional leadership depends on the leaders power to reinforce subordinates for their successful completion of the bargain. Transformational leaders Transformational leaders arouse emotions in their followers which motivates them to act beyond the framework of what may be described as exchange relations Transformational leadership is proactive and forms new expectations in followers Transformational leaders are distinguished by their capacity to inspire and provide individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and idealized influence to their followers Transformational leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers to solve problems Transformational leaders possess good visioning, rhetorical and management skills, to develop strong emotional bonds with followers Transformational leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond self-interest. In addition, the below table will give a detailed contrast of the differences between Transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leadership of the status quo. Effective in stable organizations and contexts. More likely to be observed in a well-ordered society. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leadership of change (within leaders, followers and organizations). Important in times of distress and rapid and destabilizing change. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Focuses on social and economic exchanges between leaders and followers, using contingent rewards and administrative actions to reinforce positive and reform negative behaviors. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Focuses on organizational objectives and organizational change by disseminating new values and seeking alternatives to existing arrangements. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leader-follower relationship sees each exchange needs and services to satisfy their independent objectives. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leader-follower relationship sees purposes of both become fused, leading to unity and shared purpose. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest (for example, pay, and promotion). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Attempts to raise follower needs (following Maslows hierarchy) to higher levels (for example, self-esteem) and to develop followers into leaders. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Based on directive power acts. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Based on interaction and influence. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Follower response based on compliance. Supervision likely to be important. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Follower response based on commitment. Supervision may be minimal. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leadership act takes place but leaders and followers not bound together in mutual pursuit of higher purpose. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Founded on peoples need to make a living by completing tasks. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Founded on peoples need for meaning. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Focuses on situational authority, politics and perks. Involves values, but typically those required for successful exchange relationships (for example, reciprocity, and integrity). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Focuses on personal power, values, morals and ethics. May be demonstrated by anyone in an organization in any type of position. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Emphasis on day-to-day affairs, business needs short-term goals and quantitative information. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Transcends daily affairs, concentrating on long-term issues. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leader-follower relationship may be established quickly. A relatively impersonal relationship maintained only as long as benefits outweigh costs. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ May take time for leader-follower bonds to develop. A personal relationship that may persist when costs outweigh benefits. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Tends to be transitory. Once a transaction is completed, relationship may need to be redefined. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Tends to be enduring. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Emphasizes tactical issues. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Emphasizes missions and strategies for achieving them. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Typically involves working within current systems. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ May involve redesigning of jobs to make them more meaningful and challenging. Emphasizes realization of human potential. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Supports structures and systems that emphasize outcomes. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Aligns structures and systems to overarching values and goals. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Follower counseling focuses on evaluation. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Follower counseling focuses on personal development. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Atomistic worldview and moral altruistic motives based on teleological perspective (that is to say, based on consequences). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Organic worldview and moral altruistic motives based on deontological perspective (that is to say, based on promises). In addition to the above table, their differences can also be categorized as the following; Basis Servant or steward Leadership Transformational leaders have idealized vision. They are likable and honorable hero that worth imitating and identifying. They lead to promote change in the environment. On the other hand, Transactional leaders have the basis of exchange process. They work on mutual need satisfying, giving rewards for job performance. They lead to promote stability in the workplace. Leadership development Transformational leaders tend to have more power. They empower and energize their followers excel. They re-engineer their followers. On the other hand, Transactional leaders design structures, control and reward system in their workplace to improve effectiveness and efficiency. Lead by example Transformational leaders are charismatic. They handle and meet individuals needs. As well, they upgrade the level of the needs. On the other hand, Transactional leaders possess different types of leadership style, using the right style at the necessary time. Proactive change agent Transformational leaders make an effort to inspire their followers to help them change and transcend their selves for greater purposes. On the other hand, Transactional leaders reward their followers in terms of their performance. They are reactive to change at instances. Vision creator propagandist Transformational leaders make effort to create a vision of desired future state. They communicate pain of change that worth the effort. On the other hand, Transactional leaders focus on company goals and objectives. They make sure the needed goals are achieved. 9.0 Examples Transactional Leadership In this kind of leadership, a clear chain of command is established. The leader motivates his subordinates by presenting them rewards and punishments. All requirements for a subordinate are clearly stated with corresponding rewards. If they fail to satisfy those requirements, they will receive a corresponding punishment. A couple of famous examples of transactional leaders are Joseph McCarthy and Charles de Gaulle. Transformational Leadership Transformational leaders lead by motivating by their followers. Leaders appeal to their followers ideals and morals to motivate them in accomplishing their tasks. Basically, these kinds of leaders empower their followers using their own beliefs and personal strengths. Simply put, they inspire their followers. Famous transformational leaders include Martin Luther King Jr. and Walt Disney. 10.0 Conclusion Finally, the transactional style of leadership is viewed as insufficient, but not bad, in developing the maximum leadership potential. It forms as the basis for more mature interactions but care should be taken by leaders not to practice it exclusively, otherwise it will lead to the creation of an environment permeated by position, power, perks, and politics. On the other hand, transformational Leadership by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Islam :: essays research papers

Islam is a monotheistic faith that means â€Å"submission to the will of God†. The person who practices this faith is known as a Muslim. As someone who has grown up in India, which has more than 100 million more Muslims on its subcontinent alone as compared to all the Arab countries combined, I have had several interactions with Muslims, both positive and negative. However, I now realize that those interactions were limited and that there is a lot more that I did not know about Muslims from different countries, who are scattered all around the world. I am fascinated by the fact that there are around 6 million Muslims in the United States. As Muslim immigrants comprised a steadily growing group in the United States before the attacks of September 11, it was estimated that the increasing rate of their population going to make Islam the nation’s second largest religion by the year 2010. Hence, mental health professionals in this country are paying a lot of attention to the needs of Muslim clients based on their religious doctrines. There are five basic articles or â€Å"pillars† of faith in Islam. These are â€Å"Ash’shahadatan† (testifying that there is no God save Allah and that Mohammad is the messenger of Allah), â€Å"As’salah† (a form of worship rites that involve specific movements and sayings, which need to be performed five times a day), â€Å"Az’zakah† (to pay 2.5% of the wealth annually for the benefit of the needy in Muslim community), â€Å"As’sawm† ( To abstain from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse during daytime throughout the 9th Lunar month), and â€Å"Al Hajj† (The pilgrimage to Mecca once in life for those who are physically and financially able). Research has found that Muslim societies are collectivistic (group plays a larger role in society than the individual) in terms of family life, economic situations, the truth as determined in terms of agreement with the Koran, their religious book, and religious, and aesthetic values. Moreover, according to a fundamental doctrine in the Islamic faith, Muslims believe in fate and perceive illness as a way of atoning their sins rather than a form of punishment.. I have also discovered that I had certain preconceived notions about Muslims based on my experiences as a person from India, where Muslims are minorities just as they are in the United States. However, the majority group in India, to which I used to belong to, had hostile feelings towards Muslims.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Overview of Orthopedics Essay -- essays research papers

Overview of Orthopedics / The Orthopedic Team What is orthopedics? The word orthopedic comes from two Greek words:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ortho meaning straight  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  pedia meaning children Orthopedics is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases, injuries, and conditions of the musculoskeletal system - relating to the body's muscles and skeleton, and including the joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. The proper title of this medical specialty is orthopedic surgery, although orthopedics is a generally accepted term. Who treats orthopedic conditions? Orthopedic conditions may be treated by your physician and/or other medical specialists and healthcare providers. Several physicians from different medical specialties may be involved in the treatment at the same time. This multidisciplinary team approach is particularly important in managing the symptoms of an orthopedic condition, especially as many symptoms are chronic and change in severity over time. Some of the more common medical professionals involved in the treatment of orthopedic conditions may include the following:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Primary Care Physician A primary care physician is one who has specialized education and training in general internal medicine, family practice, or another first-level-of-care area. Primary care physicians are those who provide patients with any/all of the following: o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  routine health care (including annual physical examinations and immunizations) o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  treatment for acute medical conditions o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  initial care for conditions that may become more serious or chronic in nature While your primary care physician may treat and/or diagnose your disease, he/she may refer you to a specialist for more specialized treatment of certain aspects of a disease.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Orthopedic Surgeon The physician who specializes in orthopedic surgery is called an orthopedic surgeon, or sometimes, simply, an orthopedist. Orthopedists are educated in the workings of the musculoskeletal system, which includes (but is not limited to) diagnosing a condition or disorder, identifying and treating an injury, providing rehabilitation to an affected area or function, and establishing prevention protocol to inhibit further damage to a diseased area... ...sp;  assisting children and adults in learning how to carry out daily tasks o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  conducting group or individual treatment to help children and adults in a mental health center learn to cope with daily activities o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  recommending changes in layout and design of the home or school to allow children and adults with injuries or disabilities greater access and mobility Occupational therapists work in a variety of different settings, including the following:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  hospitals  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  rehabilitation centers  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  schools  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  home care agencies  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  private practice  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  government agencies  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Podiatrist A podiatrist specializes in foot care and is licensed to prescribe medication and perform surgery.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nurses Nurses specialized in the care of orthopedic conditions may assist your physician in providing care. In addition, these nurses will help you to understand your treatment plan and can answer many of your questions.

Philosophy of Education Essay -- Philosophy of Teaching Statement

Philosophy of Education Education is an essential element to the life of every person. Teachers must have a philosophy of teaching to be effective in the classroom. No matter what way of teaching an educator chooses, it should positively affect his or her students and help to keep them on track to growing into strong intelligent adults. If a child is placed in a positive environment, then it will help shape them into good citizens. According to Plato, a student's environment determines his or her morals and character. It is very important for children to be able to function in society and to learn to interact well with other people; providing a positive learning environment plays a crucial role in instilling these characteristics. If all teachers would stress these concepts there would be a lot less discipline problems in the classroom. Philosophy Discipline plays a key role in the learning environment of the child. A teacher must have an effective discipline method to keep order in the classroom. The view of behaviorists seems to work in most situations. If positive reinforcement is utilized in the classroom, students will want to do well academically. Punishment often times causes students to rebel against authority. If the teacher rewards students for good behavior, then they will want to be consistent in their behavior they will see that this will benefit them. Knowledge is dependent upon the person and their situation, therefore the nature of knowledge is relative. Everyone is different and can not be expected to learn in the same manner. Some students learn best through experiencing things and doing things hands-on, these students are tactile-kinesthetic learners. Some students are auditory learners, ... ...variety of viewpoints. Elementary teachers should make sure that children have a good foundation in reading and math. It is very important that children have the basic skills that they need to build on and excel in the higher grades. As graduation approaches, my plans are to obtain a certificate in special education, concentrating on children with learning disabilities. After teaching for a few years, I plan to pursue a graduate degree in special education while I am still teaching. Educating young people is something that is very important to the future of society. As an educator, I would like to make a difference in the lives of my students. Upon leaving my classroom, I hope that my students will become open-minded and strong of heart. I want them to know what kind of things that they enjoy and to think of learning as a wonderful and valuable experience.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Heart of Man

THE HEART OF MAN OR THE SPIRITUAL HEART MIRROR (An Allegorical Representation in Ten Pictures) This booklet originated in France in 1732, was revised and re-written for the mission fields of Africa by Rev. J. R. Gschwend in 1929, and has subsequently been translated and printed under copyright in over 250 indigenous languages by All Nations Gospel Publishers who are distributing it today in 127 mission countries.People of all languages, classes and religions are being led by this booklet to experience the deep spiritual truth and significance of God's message to mankind as expressed by the prophet Ezekiel 586 years before Christ, â€Å"I will give you an new heart and a new mind †¦ then you will be my people, and I will be your God! † Ezekiel 36:26-28. THE HEART OF MAN THE TEMPLE OF GOD OR THE WORKSHOP OF SATAN 1 John 3:4-10 As you read this book, please bear in mind that it is like a mirror in which you will be able to see yourself.Whether you are a heathen or a Christia n, one who does not believe in Christ or a backslider, you will see yourself as God sees you. â€Å"Man looks at the outward appearance, but I look at the heart† (1 Sam. 16:7). God sees us as we really are. Satan is the father of all lies. He is the prince of darkness and god of this world, who disguises himself as an angel of light to lead men and women the wrong way. In these days, as in times past, there are many false apostles who disguise themselves, pretending to be apostles of Christ. And no wonder, for Satan himself is transformed (disguised) into an angel of light (2 Cor. 1:13, 14). Satan, the god of this world, keeps people in the dark so that they cannot see that God loves them or that Jesus died to save them (2 Cor. 4:4). All sinners and those who do not believe are spiritually dead and blind concerning God. They are ruled by the evil of this world (Eph. 2:1-2). Unless their eyes are opened in some way to their lost condition, they are heading for eternal destruct ion. The person who says, â€Å"I have never sinned† is deceiving himself. For â€Å"The Son of God appeared for this very reason, to destroy what the devil had done† (1 John 3:8). â€Å"So then, submit to God.Resist the devil, and he will run away from you. Come near to God, and He will come near to you† (James 4:7, 8). As you read this book and study its pictures, you will be able to see your own heart. Allow God's searchlight to show you the condition of your heart. Acknowledge your sins and do not deny their existence, for God's Word tells us that â€Å"If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there is no truth in us. But if we confess our sins to God, He will keep His promise and do what is 3  © Copyright by: ALL NATIONS GOSPEL PUBLISHERS P. O. Box 2191, PRETORIA, 0001, SOUTH AFRICA REG.No. 61/01798/08 ISBN 0-908412-16-9 right: He will forgive us our sins and purify us from all our wrongdoing† (1 John 1:1-10). â€Å"The blood of JE SUS, His Son, purifies us from every sin. † . You are ruled either by Satan or by God; you are a slave to sin or a servant of God. If sin controls your life, do not deny it, but cry out to God. He will set you free through Jesus Christ who came to this world to save sinners, to break the power of Satan and sin over us, He is our Saviour. You are in the presence of a holy God who knows all the secrets, the hidden thoughts and actions of your life.It is impossible to hide yourself and actions from God, for â€Å"God made our ears – can't He hear? He made our eyes – can't He see? † (Ps. 94:9). â€Å"The Lord keeps close watch over the whole world, to give strength to those whose hearts are loyal to Him† (2 Chron. 16:9). â€Å"He watches every step men take. There is no darkness dark enough to hide a sinner from God† (Job 34:21, 22). â€Å"But Jesus did not trust Himself to them, because He knew them all† (John 2:24). Therefore â€Å"happ y are those whose sins are forgiven, whose wrongs are pardoned. Happy is the man whom the Lord does not accuse of doing wrong and who is free from all deceit† (Matt. 1:28-30). Explanation of the Pictures THE FIRST PICTURE This picture shows the heart of a worldly, sinful man or woman, described in the Bible as a sinner, that is, one who is controlled by the evil of this world and by the natural desires and cravings of the human nature. This is a true picture of the heart as God sees it. The bleary, red eyes speak of drunkenness as described in Proverbs 23:29-33: â€Å"Show me someone who drinks too much, who has to try out some new drink, and I will show you someone miserable and sorry for himself, always causing trouble and always complaining.His eyes are bloodshot, and he has bruises that could have been avoided. Don't let wine tempt you, even though it is rich red, though it sparkles in the cup, and it goes down smoothly. The next morning you will feel as if you have been bitten by a poisonous snake. Weird sights will appear before your eyes, and you will not be able to think or speak clearly. † Below the head in this picture, the heart of man can be seen occupied by various animals which speak of the many different sins in the human heart, as the heart is the centre and breeding place of our sins.God tells us by the mouth of His prophet Jeremiah, that â€Å"Nobody can understand the human heart. There is nothing else so deceitful: it is too sick to be healed† (Jeremiah 17:9). Jesus Himself confirms this by saying, â€Å"For from the inside, from a person's heart, come the evil ideas which lead him to do immoral things; to rob, kill, commit adultery, be greedy, and do all sorts of evil things; deceit, indecency, jealousy, slander, pride, and folly – all these evil things come from inside a person and make him unclean† (Mark 7:21-23). 1.THE PEACOCK While the beauty of the peacock is admired by everybody, here in the heart of man, it speaks of the sin of pride. Lucifer, once God's special angel of light, lost his position through pride and so became God's enemy – the devil (Isaiah 14:9-17; Ezekiel 28:12-17). 4 5 Pride comes from the very centre of hell, and reveals itself in many ways. Some people pride themselves on their riches, their standard of education: fashionable clothing by which they expose their bodies in a shameless way: the wearing of jingling ornaments, bracelets, rings, etc. , as is so clearly described in Isaiah 3:16-24.Some pride themselves on their forefathers, nationality, culture, sport, etc. , forgetting that â€Å"God resists the proud, but shows favour to the humble† (1 Peter 5:5). God hates pride and self-importance (Proverbs 8:13). â€Å"Pride leads to destruction, and arrogance to downfall† (Proverbs 16:18). 2. THE GOAT represents bodily desires, immorality, adultery. The sins mentioned here have increased in these modern, but last days, to such an extent, that we have to admit the truth of the words of Jesus when He predicted, nearly 2000 years ago, that the last days will be like the days of Sodom and Gomorrah.Not only has this sinful way of living gripped men and women and come into the homes of religious people and institutions, the schools and hostels, but this wickedness shamelessly and in a subtle way enters the hearts of people by means of cinemas, theatres, obscene literature, and in so many other ways, that what God calls sin is being looked upon as modern morality. Millions of young people form their idea of an ideal life from the cinemas and novels, only to find themselves in trouble, shame and regret.Immoral an loose-living actors and actresses become the heroes and heroines of the younger generation. The dance-halls, too, are very often the breeding places of immorality. God's heroes of purity, like Joseph (Genesis 39) and others, are no longer taken as examples. Even the old Zulu heathen, who would put an adulterer or a dulteress to death, could teach our so-called civilised generation a lesson and stand up against us in condemnation at the day of judgement. God tells us not to play with immorality but to avoid it. Any other sin a man commits does not affect his body; but the man who is guilty of sexual immorality sins against his own body: Don't you know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit, who lives in you and who was given to you by God? You do not belong to yourselves but to God† (1 Cor. 6:18, 19); â€Å"So if anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy him. For God's temple is holy, and you yourselves are His temple† (1 Cor. 3:17). 7 1. The sinner's heart 6 3. THE PIG speaks of the sins of drunkenness and gluttony.It is a dirty animal eagerly swallowing up everything in its way, clean or dirty, and in the same way a sinful heart devours every immoral suggestion, expression, picture, literature, etc. The body, intended to be the temple of the living God, is made uncl ean by harmful food and filthy habits such as the smoking or chewing of tobacco, the use of opium and harmful drugs and tablets, etc. The habit of smoking tobacco and even â€Å"opium† has gripped men and women as never before. Only the power of God can free such poor tobacco victims and slaves of the devil.While most religiously inclined people would not dare to smoke in a church-building, considering it almost an insult to God, they nevertheless have no hesitation about soiling through this stinking weed, that which is actually the temple of God, i. e. , their bodies. â€Å"Surely you know† says the Apostle Paul, â€Å"that you are God's temple and that God's Spirit lives in you! So if anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy him† (1 Cor. 3:16, 17; 6:18, 19). A greedy person is hateful or worth nothing in the sight of God. We eat in order to live; we do not live in order to eat.Hunger can be satisfied by eating wholesome food, but greed will always cry à ¢â‚¬Å"Give, give! † , Greed will never be satisfied, will never be filled. According to the Old Testament law a glutton and a drunkard had to be stoned to death (Deut. 21:18-21). â€Å"Drunkards and gluttons will be reduced to poverty. If all you do is eat and sleep, you will soon be wearing rags. † (Prov. 28:7). Remember that a certain rich man, a glutton and a slave to his desires, died and found himself in hell in great pain. The evil of drink need hardly be mentioned.It is only too well known to be taken lightly. God tells us clearly in His Word that no drunkard will possess the Kingdom of God. Beer is not a food, it is a drink that confuses and affects the mind, so that those who drink it act foolishly. They become immoral and even kill and murder one another which they would not otherwise have done. â€Å"Drinking too much makes you loud and foolish. It's stupid to get drunk† (Prov. 20:1). Those who make and sell strong drink are just as guilty before God, for God says, â€Å"You are doomed! Heroes of the wine bottle!Brave and fearless when it comes to mixing drinks! † (Isaiah 5:22). â€Å"You will be condemned if you give drink to your neighbours, 8 giving it to them till they are drunk† (Hab. 2:15). â€Å"Surely you know that the wicked will not possess God's Kingdom. Do not fool yourselves; people who are immoral or who worship idols or are adulterers or homosexual perverts or who steal or are greedy or are drunkards or who slander others or are thieves – none of these will possess God's Kingdom† (1 Cor. 6:9, 10). The sins of our human nature are unmistakable.These are some of them: â€Å"immorality, filthy and indecent actions, worshipping of idols and witchcraft. People become enemies and they fight; they become jealous, angry and ambitious. They separate into parties and groups; they are envious, get drunk, have orgies, and do other things like these. Those who do these things will not possess the Ki ngdom of God† (Gal. 5:19-21). â€Å"Do not get drunk with wine, which will only ruin you; instead, be filled with the Holy Spirit† (Eph. 5:18). Jesus gives the following invitation to everyone who is thirsty concerning spiritual matters. Whoever is thirsty should come to me and drink† (John 7:37, 38). â€Å"Come everyone who is thirsty here is water! Come, you that have no money – buy corn and eat! Come! buy (spiritual) wine and milk – it will cost you nothing! † (Isa. 55:1). â€Å"Whoever drinks the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again. The water that I will give him will become in him a spring which will provide him with live-giving water and give him eternal live† (John 4:14). 4. THE TORTOISE speaks of laziness, sluggishness to obey and witchcraft. Rebellion is as bad as witchcraft (1 Sam. 15:23). A lazy man who refuses to work is only killing himself, all he does is think about what he would like to have† (Pr ov. 21:25, 26). Joshua had to say to the Israelites, â€Å"Don't stay here doing nothing; hurry! Go on in and take it over! † (Judg. 18:9). Human nature is very lazy and slow to obtain the things of God. Jesus said, â€Å"Do your best to go in through the narrow door† (Luke 13:24). â€Å"Anyone who seeks will find† (Matt. 7:8). The Kingdom of heaven has suffered violent attacks, and violent men try to seize it† (Matt. 11:12). Carelessness concerning the salvation and spiritual welfare of our souls leads to eternal death.It keeps us from praying, from searching for the deep things of God, from accepting God's rich promises; it leads to destruction. When God speaks to you, urging 9 you to give your heart to Him today, the devil tells you to do it tomorrow, or some other convenient day, which unfortunately, may never come; and you will die without salvation and without Christ. God says, â€Å"If you hear God's voice today, do not be stubborn, as your ancesto rs were when they rebelled against God† (Heb. 3:7, 8). How many people have died spiritually by putting off salvation for some more convenient day which never came? The day tomorrow is not yours.The shell of the tortoise is often used by witch-doctors for the practising of witchcraft, and points here to the sin of trusting in and practising witchcraft, fortune-telling or magic or voodoo, instead of trusting the living God. Especially in times of testing and sickness, suffering and bereavement, we are told to call upon the living God, who is ready to help, instead of trusting in good or bad luck; for â€Å"The Lord guides a man in the way he should go† (Psalm 37:23). â€Å"Is there anyone who is ill? He should send for the church elders who will pray for him and rub olive-oil on him in the name of the Lord.This prayer made in faith will heal the sick person; the Lord will restore him to health, and the sins he has committed will be forgiven. So then confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, so that you will be healed† (James 5:14-16). God commanded the Israelites saying, â€Å"Don't sacrifice your children in the fires on your altars; and don't let your people practise divination or look for omens or use spells or charms (or consult fortune tellers), and don't let them consult the spirits of the dead (such as spiritism). The Lord your God hates people who do these disgusting things† (Deut. 8:10-12). Outside the (heavenly) city are the perverts and those who practise magic, the immoral and the murderers those who worship idols and those who are liars both in words and deeds† (Rev. 22:15). â€Å"Do not go for advice to people who consult the spirits of the dead. If you do, you will be ritually unclean. I am the Lord your God† (Lev. 19:31). â€Å"But people will tell you to ask for messages from fortune-tellers and mediums, who chirp and mutter. They will say, ‘After all, people should ask for message s from the spirits and consult the dead on behalf of the living. You are to answer them, ‘Listen to what the Lord is teaching you! Don't listen to mediums – what they tell you will do you no good'† (Isa. 8:19, 20). While you are reading this little book, God is speaking to you, calling you to turn from your sins and to give your life to Him, but the spirit of the tortoise, which is in your heart, makes all kinds of suggestions to you to put off making this decision, and tries to fill 10 your heart with fear. â€Å"What will my family, my friends, and other people say, if I become a real Christian? What will happen if I cannot take part in the dances, parties and worldly amusements any longer?Instead of seeing the great riches in Christ Jesus, His wonderful peace, His joy which words cannot express, His glory, eternal life so full of happiness, you begin to see all the things which you may lose or â€Å"give up† when you allow Christ to come into your heart , while fear of man as well as fear of death keeps you a slave to the devil. But Christ came to set free those who were slaves all their lives because of their fear of death. (Hebr. 2:14, 15). The spirit of sluggishness to obey is making you so stubborn that your heart will be as hard as the shell of the tortoise. 5. THE LEOPARD is a very savage and cruel beast.Hatred, anger and a bad temper often rule the heart of man and many times lead to murder. You may try, and even manage, to control that bad temper of yours, until it breaks out in all its fierceness. It is better to admit that it is in your heart, and ask Jesus to set you free. â€Å"Don't give in to anger; it only leads to trouble† (Psalm 37:8). â€Å"Anger is cruel and destructive† (Prov. 27:4). â€Å"Keep your temper under control; it is foolish to harbour a grudge† (Eccl. 7:9), â€Å"Get rid of anger† (Col. 3:8). Many cowards drink to encourage themselves to carry out some evil deed or revenge, but it is â€Å"like wine made from the venom of snakes† (Deut. 2:33). Revenge is sweet to the sinful heart, but God is the one who punishes all wrongdoing. Jesus said, â€Å"Love your neighbour as you love yourself† (Mark 12:31) and â€Å"Love your enemies† (Matt. 5:44). God promised to forgive the wrongs we have done, if we forgive others for the wrongs that they have done to us (Matt. 6:12). A sulky, grumbling spirit is hated by God. The awful desire for bloodshed and war is in the heart of man, and therefore real peace must be established in the heart if it is to last. 6. THE SNAKE tricked Eve in the garden of Eden and broke up the sweet fellowship and friendship with God.Satan, was very jealous of Adam and Eve, when he saw them as rulers over the world, living in perfect unity with God, taking his place. Out of jealousy Satan 11 planned their destruction, and succeeded in breaking up their wonderful friendship and life with God. The same devilish jealousy and envy in the human heart destroys happiness in the hearts of some when they see others are happy and living comfortably. Jealousy brings evil thoughts into the heart to destroy the happiness of others and can even lead to murder. This is especially the case in some married lives. A husband is never angrier than when he is jealous; his revenge knows no limits† (Prov. 6:34). In business as well as in all other walks of life it causes untold suffering and hatred. Even Christian workers, preachers and ministers are not free from jealousy should God use another of His servants more than themselves. They should be constantly on guard, and filled with the pure love of God which He has poured out into our hearts by means of the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:5), otherwise their usefulness to God and their ministry will be spoilt by a jealous nature. 7.THE FROG speaks here to the sins of greediness and the love of money which is the source of all evil (1 Tim. 6:10). Certain frogs in the Congo have been seen eating ants by the hundreds until they burst and died. A greedy person is not willing to open his hand to help the poor and needy, but tries by all means, honest and dishonest, to get more of the riches of this world. Jesus Himself said, â€Å"Do not store up riches for yourselves here on earth, where moths and rust destroy, and robbers break in and steal. Instead, store up riches for yourselves in heaven, where moths and rust cannot destroy, and robbers cannot break in and steal.For your heart will always be where your riches are† (Matt. 6:19-21). Achan and his family were stoned because he loved gold and silver and clothes (Joshua 7). Judas Iscariot, the disciple of Jesus, hanged himself because the love of money had made him betray his Lord and Master. It is not the money that is evil, neither the gold, but the love of money which lies hidden in the human heart. Thousands of men and women of all classes and races are ruining their lives and the lives of thei r family by the awful desire to obtain great and sudden riches by means of gambling and betting for large sums of money at horse and dog races, etc.The desire to become rich without much trouble leads to stealing and murder as well as suicide. Love of money and greediness have many companions, such as love of fame, of power, it may be political power to rule over 12 others, financial power to oppress the poor; religious power, being more concerned for the name of a church organisation than for God, disapproving of any child of God who has the courage to follow Christ without belonging to his particular church (Mark 9:38).Jesus said, â€Å"Watch out and guard yourselves from every kind of greed; because a person's true life is not made up of the things he owns, no matter how rich he may be† (Luke 12: 15). The story of the rich man is told like this: â€Å"There was once a rich man who had land which bore good crops. He began to think to himself, ‘I haven't anywhere to k eep all my crops. What can I do? This is what I will do,' he told himself; ‘I will tear down my barns and build bigger ones, where I will store my corn and all my other goods. Then I will say to myself, Lucky man! You have all the good things you need for many years.Take life easy, eat, drink, and enjoy yourself! ‘ But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night you will have to give up your life; then who will get all these things you have kept for yourself? ‘ This is how it is with those who pile up riches for themselves but are not rich in God's sight† (Luke 12:16-21). â€Å"Does a person gain anything if he wins the whole world but loses his life? Of course not† (Mark 8:36). â€Å"And so I tell you not to worry about the food you need to stay alive or about the clothes you need for your body †¦ Instead, be concerned with His Kingdom, and He will provide you with these things †¦For your heart will always be where your riches areâ₠¬  (Luke 12:22-34). 8. SATAN, the father of all lies and of them that tell lies, is the one who persuades us to sin, and is the ruler of the heart. Jesus said, â€Å"You are the children of your father, the devil, and you want to follow your father's desires. From the very beginning he was a murderer and has never been on the side of truth, because there is no truth in him. When he tells a lie, he is only doing what is natural to him, because he is a liar and the father of all lies† (John 8:44). A small lie is as bad as a big one.There are lies which are spoken, written, acted. A hypocrite is a liar for in reality he pretends to be what he is not. God cannot lie – neither can a Christian (Titus 1:2). â€Å"If, then, we say that we have fellowship with Him, yet at the same time live in the darkness, we are lying both in our words and in our actions (1 John 1:6). â€Å"But outside the (heavenly) city are the perverts and those who practise magic, the immoral and the m urderers, those 13 who worship idols and those who are liars both in words and deeds† (Rev. 22:15). â€Å"God hates a witness who tells one lie after another† (Prov. :19). 9. THE STAR speaks of the conscience in the heart of every man. Here it is, dirty and evil, probably dead through continual and deliberate sinning; blinded and sinful, so that it can no longer judge its own actions. This evil conscience may sometimes be quiet, sometimes troubled. It accuses when it should excuse, and it excuses when it should accuse. It may be dead, as if burnt with a hot iron, and have lost all sense and feeling through abandoning the faith, obeying lying spirits and following the teachings of demons, and listening to teachings spread by deceitful liars (1 Tim. :1, 2; Hebr. 10:22). 10. THE EYE of God sees everything that goes on in the heart. Nothing can be hidden from His flaming eye, and therefore He knows and sees all the secret thoughts and intentions of the heart. Whether you do your evil deeds in the darkest night, in the thickest forest, in the deepest ditch or wherever it may be, God sees it. (The eyes in these pictures also agree with the expression on the man's face. ) 11. THE LITTLE TONGUES OF FIRE round about the heart show the love of God surrounding the sinful heart.While God hates sin He loves man and does not want the death of a sinner, but that he should turn away from his sins and live (2 Pet. 3:9). Jesus came to save sinners. There is great joy in heaven over one sinner that repents (Luke 15:7). The little tongues also speak of the blood of Jesus Christ, â€Å"the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world† (John 1:29). 12. THE ANGEL represents the Word of God. God wants to speak to those who have been deceived and are carrying heavy loads of sin, so that they 14 may turn from their sinful ways and let the light and love of God come into their hearts. 13.THE DOVE is a sign of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit who reveals the truth abou t God, about sin and what is right, and about God's judgement (John 15:26). The Holy Spirit is shown here outside the human heart. He cannot live where sin rules. Should the picture of this heart be the same as the condition of your heart, cry to the Lord, open your heart to Him, let the light of His Word shine in. â€Å"Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved† (Acts 16:31). God is willing, yes, He has promised to change your heart, to give you a new heart and a new mind (Ezek. 11:19). This is explained in the second picture.THE SECOND PICTURE This picture shows a repenting heart that is beginning to look for God. The angel is holding the sword, the Word of God, which is â€Å"alive and active, sharper than any double-edged sword. It cuts all the way through, to where soul and spirit meet, to where joints and marrow come together. It judges the desires and thoughts of man's heart† (Hebr. 4:12). The Word of God reminds him that â€Å"sin pays its wage – death† (Rom. 6:23) and that â€Å"everyone must die once, and after that be judged by God† (Hebr. 9:27). The place for the sinner and unbeliever will be in the lake burning with fire and sulphur† (Rev. 1:8). THE HEART CONVINCED OF SIN In this other hand the angel is holding a skull. This is to remind the sinner that we will all die. Our body which we love so much, clothe, feed and beautify, give such care and attention to in order to satisfy its desires and longings, is going to die and decay, and the worms will destroy it while our soul and spirit live for ever, and will one day appear before Christ, to be judged by Him (2 Cor. 5:10). 15 Here we see the sinner beginning to take notice of the message of God and to open his heart to the love of God. The Holy Spirit begins to shine into the dark and sinful heart.The light of God comes into his heart to drive all darkness away. When God's light comes in, darkness has to go. Sin, described here by all the various ani mals, has to go. Therefore, dear reader, allow Jesus, the Light of the world, to come into your heart, and darkness and the evil actions of darkness must leave the heart, as shown in this picture. Jesus said, â€Å"I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will have the light of life and will never walk in darkness† (John 8:12). You will never succeed in driving sin out of your heart by your own efforts, your own wisdom, or by the wisdom of people.The easiest, surest, quickest and most effective and only way, is to let Jesus, the Light, come in, and darkness, which is sin, must leave. The moon and the stars may give us some help on a dark night, but when the sun has risen, then darkness as well as the smaller lights disappear. Jesus is the Sun of righteousness. When He went into the temple at Jerusalem, He drove out all those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money-changers and the stools of those who sold pigeons, saying, â€Å"It is w ritten in the Scriptures that God said, ‘My temple will be called a house of prayer. But you are making it a hideout for thieves! † (Matt 21:13). Your heart is intended to be God's house, God's temple. He wants to live in it, make it beautiful, fill it with light, love and joy. Jesus not only came to forgive us our sins, but He came to deliver us and set us free from the power and domination of sin. â€Å"If the Son (Jesus) sets you free, then you will be really free† (John 8:36). THE THIRD PICTURE This picture shows us the heart-condition of a really repentant sinner. He now sees the greatness and awfulness of his many sins for which Jesus died on the cross.As he sees the cross which the angel, the Word of God, shows to him, it breaks his now sorry heart, and he is moved with deep, heartfelt regret and sorrow over his many sins. As he sees the great love of God expressed in Christ Jesus, this love melts his heart, especially as he begins to realise that Jesus Chr ist, the Son of God, came to take away his many sins, as He was willing to die in his place on the cross. The fact that Jesus was whipped, crowned with thorns, had nails driven through His hands and feet and died on a cross for our sins, 17 2. The heart convinced of sin 16 s brought home clearly and deeply to the repenting sinner, completely changing his heart and life. As he reads God's Word in which he can see himself as in a mirror, he realises more and more how far he has turned away from God and disobeyed His commands. He is overcome with feelings of great sadness and sorrow, and as he pours out his heart before God with tears and bitter crying, Jesus draws near to him. The love and peace of God enter his heart as he begins to realise that â€Å"the blood of Jesus, His Son, purifies us from every sin† (1 John 1:7). â€Å"Create a pure heart in me, o God, and put a new and loyal spirit in me† (Psalm 51:10).Again God's Word says, â€Å"I am pleased with those who a re humble and repentant, who fear me and obey me† (Isa. 66:2). The Holy Spirit makes the words of Jesus clear to him, â€Å"Courage, my son (daughter)! Your sins are forgiven† (Matt. 9:2). While he still looks to the cross and to the blood of Jesus which was poured out on the cross, believing that it was all done for him, he begins to realise that the load of sin has been taken away, for Jesus has endured the suffering that should have been ours; that â€Å"because of our sins He was wounded, beaten because of the evil we did,† that â€Å"the Lord made the punishment fall on Him† (Isaiah 53).The Holy Spirit and the love of God take control of the purified heart. As he believes in Jesus, he realises that his sins have been forgiven, and so he finds the assurance in his heart that the blood of Jesus, the Son of God, has purified him from all sin (1 John 1:7). He is now sure that everyone who believes in Jesus will not die (spiritually), but will have eternal life (John 3:16). â€Å"For by the sacrificial death of Christ we are set free, that is, our sins are forgiven† (Eph. 1:7). The sinful desires of the human nature have now given place to a deep desire to live for God and to serve Him â€Å"who first loved us† (1 John 4:19).Instead of loving the world and the things of the world, he loves God and the things of God. In this picture therefore, we find that the animals which represent sin, are now outside his heart, although Satan does not want to leave his former home, looking back and hoping to find an entrance once more. That is why the Lord Jesus warns us to keep watch and pray; to resist the devil so that he will run away from us (James 4:7). THE FOURTH PICTURE 3. The repenting heart 18 This picture speaks of a Christian who has found perfect peace and eternal salvation through the death of our Lord and Saviour, 19 4. Dying with Christ 20Jesus Christ, and so boasts in nothing else except â€Å"only about the cross o f our Lord Jesus Christ; for by means of His cross the world is dead to us, and we are dead to the world† (Gal. 6:14). Jesus died on the cross so that we too, might â€Å"die to sin and live for righteousness† (1 Peter 2:24); a Christian dead to the world. We are commanded to â€Å"let the Spirit direct our lives, and we will not satisfy the desires of the human nature† (Gal. 5:16, 25). The pillar to which the Lord Jesus was bound after they had taken off His clothes, is shown in this picture of the heart, as well as the whips with which they cruelly whipped Him.He was punished for our sins because â€Å"we are healed by the punishment He suffered† (Isa. 53:5). Herod and his soldiers mocked Him, and after having whipped Him, they pressed a crown of thorny branches on His head – instead of crowning Him with a crown of gold, and put a stick in His right hand – instead of the sceptre of a king, and they bowed before Him and mocked Him, saying. à ¢â‚¬Å"Long live the King of the Jews! † They spat on Him and took the stick from Him, and hit Him on the head. After they had so shamefully and cruelly mocked Him, they led Him away to be crucified (Matt. 27:27-31).There are many so-called Christians who pray, share in the sacrament of holy communion, sing the songs of God and yet, by their sinful actions, are constantly crucifying the Son of God again (Heb. 6:6). â€Å"Not everyone who calls me ‘Lord, Lord' will enter the Kingdom of heaven, but only those who do what my Father in heaven wants them to do† (Matt. 7:21-27). In this picture we also find the bag of money belonging to Judas, who betrayed the Lord Jesus and sold Him for thirty silver coins, because the love of money had taken hold of his heart and that was all he could think of.The lantern, chains, etc. , were used by the soldiers who took Jesus prisoner by night. The dice, so often used for gambling, were used by the soldiers when they gambled for His clothes. â€Å"They gamble for my clothes and divide them among themselves† (Psalm 22:18). They took everything from Jesus, but Himself they rejected, saying â€Å"We don't want this man to be our king†. People in general want to receive all the blessings from God, all the rain and all the sunshine, but they do not want to commit themselves to serving God as their Lord and Master.To many, God is only good enough to help in times of trouble and despair. With the spear, the soldiers pierced His side and heart â€Å"and at once blood and water poured out† (John 19:33-37). Before the cock crowed, Peter said three times that he did not know Jesus, but 21 later he repented weeping bitterly (Matt. 26:69-75). Do you declare openly that you have given your heart to Jesus Christ, by what you say and do? Or are you ashamed to let others know? Jesus said, â€Å"If anyone declares publicly that he belongs to me, I will do the same for him before my Father in heaven.But if a nyone rejects me publicly, I will reject him before my Father in heaven† (Matt. 10:32,33). Jesus also said, â€Å"Whoever does not take up his cross and follow in my steps is not fit to be my disciple† (Matt. 10:38). Happy are those who find protection in the Rock, Jesus Christ! â€Å"Rock of ages, cleft for me, Let me hide myself in Thee; Let the water and the blood From Thy riven side which flowed, Be of sin the double cure; Cleanse me from its guilt and power. † THE FIFTH PICTURE This picture shows the clean and purified heart of the sinner saved by God's abundant grace and mercy.It has become a true temple of God, the home of God, the Father, the Son and Holy Spirit, according to the promise of the Lord Jesus Christ, â€Å"Whoever loves me will obey my teaching. My Father will love him, and my Father and I will come to him and live with him† (John 14:23). God honours, blesses and uplifts man through Jesus Christ (Luke 1:52). The heart has now become a true temple of God. Sin has been driven out. Instead of the various animals controlled by Satan, the father of lies, we see the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth, living in the heart.Instead of being the breeding place of sin, the heart has become a beautiful, fruit-bearing tree or garden, bearing the fruits of the Spirit, such as love, joy, peace, humility, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, self control and others which are acceptable and pleasing to God and man (Gal. 5:22-23). He has now become a fruit-bearing branch of the real vine – our Lord Jesus Christ. The secret of this fruit-bearing is that he remains united with Christ, and Christ and His words remain in him (John 15:1-10). As he has been filled and baptised with the Holy Spirit, he has power to 22 . The temple of God 23 defeat the human nature and its desires, and to put it to death (Gal. 5:24). The Holy Spirit directs his life, and he does not satisfy the desires of the human nature (Gal. 5:16). He no lo nger lives by what he sees, hears and feels, but by faith – for â€Å"we win the victory over the world by means of our faith† (1 John 5:4). He lives with assurance and hope and is strengthened by the expectation of the near return of our Lord Jesus Christ. He lives experiencing the love of God, which remains for ever. Happy are the pure in heart; they will see God! † (Matt. 5:8). King David, in spite of all his riches and his victories over his enemies, knew that the greatest battle was taking place in his own heart and recognizing his deep spiritual need, prayed, â€Å"Create a pure heart in me, O God, and put a new and loyal spirit in me† (Psalm 51:10). Nobody is able to purify his own heart, or to create a clean heart, unless through truly repenting he comes to God as David did, asking God to create a pure heart in him. God wants to do a new thing in your life.Mending the torn, tattered clothes of your own goodness with false promises and securities wi ll not make your heart a worthy dwelling-place for God. He is only too willing to help you, because He has promised, â€Å"I will sprinkle clean water on you and make you clean from all your idols and everything else that has defiled you. I will give you a new heart and a new mind. I will take away your stubborn heart of stone, and give you an obedient heart. I will put my spirit in you and I will see to it that you follow my laws and keep all the commands I have given you† (Ezek. 36:25-27).This is the message of the New Testament which God has given to us through His Son, Jesus Christ. In this picture we also notice the angel re-appearing. Angels are appointed to â€Å"guard those who honour the Lord and rescue them from danger† (Psalm 34:7; 91:11; Dan. 6:22; Matt. 2:13; 13:39; 18:10; Acts 5:19; 12:7-10). The devil is also seen in this picture, standing close to the heart, as if watching for an opportunity to re-enter his former home. For this reason we are warned to â€Å"be alert, be on the watch! Your enemy, the Devil, roams round like a roaring lion, looking for someone to devour† (1 Peter 5:8).Very often he is disguised as an angel of light, tempting careless children of God with the desires of this world, trying, by his cunning, to deceive even God's chosen people. If, however, we resist the devil, he will run away from us (James 4:7). THE SIXTH PICTURE This is the sad picture of a backslider. One eye is beginning to close, showing that he is beginning to grow cold and sleepy in his Christian life, while the other eye is shamelessly looking around, making love with the world. The light inside has grown dim, and the pictures in his heart, showing his readiness to suffer with Christ have fallen and are no longer upright.He is surrounded by temptations to which he is slowly giving in instead of resisting them. Instead of listening to God's voice he now begins to listen to the devil’s cunning suggestions and false promises. Altho ugh he may still be a church-goer, hiding his desires for the things of the world under a form of religion, the love for God has grown cold in his heart. He has become undecided, standing still between two ways. He begins to play with the things of the world, and only pretends to love God. The star in his heart, the conscience, grows dim.The cross is no longer carried with a smile, but becomes an unwelcome, heavy load. His faith begins to shake, he stops communicating with God in prayer, becomes unconcerned and careless about his heart's condition and slowly makes room for the devil who is waiting outside his heart. He enjoys the company of sinful people more than the company of true children of God. The peacock, representing pride, begins to look for a way in again. He may have forgotten that he was saved by grace alone, and becomes a proud Christian. The desire for drinking alcohol knocks at the door and wants to come in.It may be on a special occasion, in the company of sinful fr iends, where he is ashamed to be thought different, a weakling, or unsociable, that the devil tells him that this one occasion will not hurt his spiritual life. Unspiritual thoughts and desires make themselves felt. Perhaps he begins to enjoy dirty jokes, to look again and again with pleasure at indecent pictures, and enjoy the wrong company, going to dance-halls, evil worldly entertainments, taking to heart sinful suggestions from the devil who tells him that this is human nature and that one sin is not really wrong.Truly, we cannot help it if the wild birds of evil and bad thoughts fly over our heads, but we are guilty if we allow them to control us and make their nests in our hearts, breeding out their evil deeds. If we give the devil our little finger, he is sure to grab the whole hand, dragging soul and spirit into everlasting hell. Therefore God's earnest warning to us, is to avoid the passions of youth and not to 25 24 play with sin, no matter in what way it may come. Run to Jesus, the protector and defender.The man seen in this picture stabbing the heart with a dagger, speaks of those who mock and resist Christianity. With their false tongues and mocking lips they stab and wound the hearts of Christians – attacks which a divided heart cannot survive. He begins to fear men more than God and because of fear of what man will say and do, he becomes the slave of men, and drifts away from God. Anger and bad temper show themselves in times of trouble and disappointments, and force their way in.That evil snake of jealousy, which appears when others are more successful and prosperous, will creep in without warning, and if given half a chance, will open the door to hatred and pride. It is so easy for the love of money to creep into our hearts unless we obey the warnings of our Lord Jesus when He says, â€Å"Keep watch and pray that you will not fall into temptation† (Matt. 26:41). â€Å"Whoever thinks he is standing firm had better be careful that he does not fall† (1 Cor. 10:12). We must put on all the armour that God gives us, so that we will be able to stand up against the devil's evil tricks (Eph. :11-18). THE SEVENTH PICTURE This picture reveals the condition of the backslidden heart of man, who after he was once in God's light and had tasted heaven's gift and received his share of the Holy Spirit, has abandoned his faith (Heb. 6:4). It also shows the condition of a person who has never repented or given his life over to God, in spite of the fact that the truth of the Gospel, called the â€Å"Good News†, has been offered and revealed to him. A man who is stubborn when God speaks to him, will grow worse and worse in spite of his useless efforts to change himself.Jesus Himself described the backsliders' condition when He said, â€Å"When an evil spirit goes out of a person, it travels over dry country looking for a place to rest. If it can't find one, it says to itself, ‘I will go back to my house. â⠂¬Ëœ So it goes back and finds the house clean and tidy. Then it goes out and brings seven other spirits even worse than itself, and they come and live there. So when it is all over, that person is in a worse state than he was at the beginning† (Luke 11:24-26). â€Å"What happened to them shows that the proverbs 27 6. The tempted and divided heart 26 7. The backslidden or stubborn heart 28 re true; ‘A dog goes back to what it has vomited' and ‘A pig that has been washed goes back to roll in the mud'† (2 Peter 2:22). These Scriptures clearly explain the condition of a backslider's or the unrepentant sinner's heart. Sin in all its deceitfulness has come again to stay and control the heart. Even his face reveals, in a certain way, the condition of his heart. The Holy Spirit, that gentle dove, is forced to leave the heart, as sin and the Holy Spirit cannot live together. It is impossible for the heart to be a temple of God and at the same time a hideout for Sata n.The angel, the Word of God, has to leave sorrowfully, still looking back, hoping that he or she may still repent like the lost son, who â€Å"wished he could fill himself with the bean pods the pigs ate, but no one gave him anything to eat. At last he came to his senses and said, ‘I will get up and go to my father and say, Father, I have sinned against God and against you. 1 am no longer fit to be called your son'† (Luke 15:16-20). The father, on seeing his sorrowful son, forgave him and received him joyfully. The heart in this picture shows no sign of true repentance, no turning to God, no searching for forgiveness at the feet of Jesus.His conscience is as though burnt with a hot iron and put to silence. He has ears but cannot hear the pleading voice of Jesus. He has eyes but cannot see the bottomless hole of hell open wide at his feet. He no longer feels ashamed of continuing in his sins. Satan has come to rule in his heart and is seated as a king on his throne. It is possible that he may still boast of being outwardly decent and respectable, of having a religious appearance, like a whitewashed tomb â€Å"which looks fine on the outside but is full of bones and decaying corpses on the inside† (Matt. 23:27). The father of lies occupies the place of the Spirit of Truth.Every animal, every sin goes hand in hand with a special demon and evil spirit and occupies his heart. Although he would like to set himself free from these evil tormentors, they keep him bound. â€Å"Anyone who disobeys the Law of Moses is put to death without any mercy when judged guilty on the evidence of two or more witnesses. What, then, of the person who despises the Son of God? who treats as a cheap thing the blood of God's covenant which purified him from sin? who insults the Spirit of grace? Just think how much worse is the punishment he will deserve! † (Hebr. 10:28,29; 2 Peter 2:1-14).Should this picture agree with the condition of your heart, dear friend, cry to God without delay, from the depth of your heart. â€Å"He is able, now and always, to save those who come to God through Him† (Heb. 7:25), and is also able and willing to forgive all sins, if 29 you come in true repentance. He can restrain the devil and all his demons, and drive them out of your heart, if you are only willing to let Him do so. Come like the leper who came to Jesus and said, â€Å"‘If you want to, you can make me clean. ‘ Jesus was filled with pity, and stretched out His hand and touched him. ‘I do want to,' He answered. ‘Be clean! † (Mark 1:40, 41). But if you continue to be stubborn, and love darkness rather than light, there is no hope, no help, because you are choosing death instead of life – â€Å"sin pays its wage-death† (Rom. 6:23). THE EIGHTH PICTURE Here we find the stubborn sinner who has postponed making a decision to follow Christ, approaching death, his body may be full of pain and his soul fille d with the fear of death. Death (the skeleton) has come at an unexpected and unwanted time. The false pleasures of sin have disappeared, and the awful reality of the high and dreadful cost of sin now has to be faced. The agonies of hell are becoming real to him.Although he now longs to pray, he finds he cannot communicate with God whose love he has rejected for so long. His friends are afraid to stand at his bedside, and their empty words of comfort cannot help him now. His riches can neither lengthen his life, nor save his soul, nor reduce the agony of his soul. He finds it impossible to concentrate on God because the devil does not give him an opportunity to do so. Everything he once loved and lived for, seems to mock him and even his unreliable, probably unsaved minister, priest or church leader cannot help him now, as he has rejected the love of God and has come under His judgement.He begins to realise that â€Å"it is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God ! † (Heb. 10:31). He had hoped to give his life to God when it suited him, or on his deathbed, but now he finds it is too late. Thousands of people die suddenly, without having a chance to turn to God on their deathbeds. It is therefore essential to turn to God while He is near. Instead of hearing the comforting and saving words of God, this dying sinner who rejected the forgiveness and love of God during his lifetime now has to hear the voice of his Judge, the Saviour whom he rejected, saying â€Å"Away from me, you that are under God's curse!Away to the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels! † (Matt. 25:41). â€Å"Everyone must die once, and after that be judged by God† (Heb. 9:27). 30 8. The sinner's judgement 31 THE NINTH PICTURE This picture represents a Christian who remains faithful and wins the victory over painful tests and temptations. While he is tempted on all sides, he remains firm and holds out to the end, being victoriou s through Jesus Christ. He has not only entered the Christian race, but he is continuing in it, running with determination, â€Å"keeping his eyes fixed on Jesus, on whom our faith depends from beginning to end† (Heb. 2:1,2). Satan with all his demons surrounds the believing heart, trying without success to lead the child of God the wrong way. Pride, the love of money, immorality, and others, are also represented. In the place of the leopard we now see a donkey, for often sin comes to us in another way, and hides itself in a different form or name. But the watchful Christian knows it is sin even when it comes in the form of religion, or as an angel of light, for the Word of God and the Holy Spirit lead him to the truth.A man, holding a glass of wine in the one hand, dances around the Christian and tries to tempt him with the false pleasures of the world. It has, however, no effect on the dedicated Christian, as he has been put to death with Christ as far as sin and worldly de sires are concerned. The second man in the picture, is stabbing the Christian with a dagger. Insults, gossiping, mocking and threats through unbelievers – and very often through so-called believers – are constantly stabbing the heart of the true believer. But he does not listen to what people say and cares only about what God says.He remembers the words of Jesus. â€Å"Happy are you when people insult you and persecute you and tell all kinds of evil lies against you because you are my followers. Be happy and glad, for a great reward is kept for you in heaven† (Matt. 5:11, 12). Our sinful nature and the devil, are constantly trying their best to separate the Christian from the love of God. But with great joy and confidence he can truly say, â€Å"Who, then, can separate us from the love of Christ? Can trouble do it, or hardship or persecution or hunger or poverty or danger or death? (Rom. 8:35). No, in all these things we have complete victory through Him who lo ved us! † (Rom. 8:37). Having put on all the armour of God, he is able to resist the devil's attacks, when the evil day comes, and after fighting to the end, still to hold his ground through Jesus Christ, who won the victory over all kinds of trials and temptations, that through Him we should win the victory and receive a glorious crown which will never lose its brightness (Eph. 6:10-18, 1 Pet. 5:4). 32 9. The victorious heart 33 THE STAR of his conscience is clear and bright. His heart is full of faith and filled with the Holy Spirit.The angel, as the Word of God, reminds him of the rich blessings given to them that win the victory and hold out to the end. â€Å"To those who win the victory I will give the right to eat the fruit of the tree of life that grows in the Garden of God. † â€Å"Those who win the victory will not be hurt by the second death. † â€Å"To those who win the victory I will give some of the hidden manna. I will also give each of them a whit e stone on which is written a new name. † â€Å"To those who win the victory, who continue to the end to do what I want, I will give the same authority that I received from my Father. â€Å"Those who win the victory will be clothed like this in white, and I will not remove their names from the book of the living. In the presence of my Father and of His angels I will declare openly that they belong to me. † â€Å"I will make him who is victorious a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will never leave it. † â€Å"To those who win the victory I will give the right to sit beside me on my throne, just as I have been victorious and now sit by my Father on His throne† (Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21). THE OPEN BAG OF MONEY shows that not only his heart, but also his money is dedicated to God.Instead of wasting his money, he is helping the poor, giving his tithes (the tenth part of his income) and offerings or even all he possesses, to God, using everything for the glory of God. THE LOAF OF BREAD AND THE FISH indicate that he lives a clean and self-controlled life. He does not spoil his life with strong drink or by eating unclean food (Acts 15:20). He does not waste his money, neither does he destroy his body (which is the temple of God), by chewing or smoking tobacco in any form, neither does he use drugs or harmful medicines, but eats wholesome, clean, nourishing food.His own heart has become a house of prayer. He also attends church services regularly and respectfully, in all kinds of weather and under all circumstances. He loves prayer, whether it be in the church or with his family, or in his own room, for he knows that a Christian cannot grow without communicating with God in prayer. THE OPEN BOOK indicates that the Bible is an open book to him, and he reads and studies it daily, finding wisdom and strength, life and light, and countless riches in it. It has become a lamp to guide him and a sword with which he defeats the devil. It is the daily spiritual food for his soul, water to put an end to his thirst, a bath in which to clean himself, and a mirror in which he sees himself. 34 He loves to carry his cross, for he knows that there will be no reward without the cross. As he knows that he has risen with Christ so that he might live a new life, he sets his heart on the things that are in heaven, keeping his mind fixed on things there, not on things here on earth (Col. 3:1-2). He is ready to meet God and is like a tree that grows beside a stream; that bears fruit at the right time (Ps. :3); like a branch of the real vine, bearing much fruit. He does not know the fear of death, for the perfect love of God, which he has received through the Holy Spirit, has filled his heart. THE TENTH PICTURE Jesus said, â€Å"I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die† (John 11:25, 26). â€Å"Whoever hears my words and believes in Him who sent me has eternal life. He will not be judged, but has already passed from death to life† (John 5:24). Death holds neither fear nor punishment for the Christian. Death is destroyed; victory is complete! Where death is your victory? Where death is your power to hurt? †¦ Thanks be to God who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ! † (1 Cor. 15:54-57). A person who has lived and walked with God is not afraid of death. When the time comes for him to die, he will go gladly, as the Apostle Paul puts it, I want very much to leave this life and to be with Christ, which is a far better thing† (Phil. 1:23). A Christian longs to see the face of Jesus who died for him and paid the price for his sins on the cross.The Holy Spirit also reminds him of the words of Jesus, â€Å"Do not be worried and upset. Believe in God and believe also in me. There are many rooms in my Father's house †¦ I will come back and take you to myself, so that you will be where I am† (John 14:1-4). â€Å"What no one ever saw or heard, what no one ever thought could happen, is the very thing God prepared for those who love Him (1 Cor. 2:9). There is no language on earth by which one can explain or describe the splendour of the heavenly city prepared for them that walk in the footsteps of our Lord Jesus Christ here on earth.Instead of the fearful skeleton (death), the angel or messenger of God is seen in this last picture. He is waiting to carry the clean spirit back to God. Soul and spirit are set free from the imprisonment of the mortal body, and ascend through the open gates of heaven to 35 Jesus who loves him and who died for him on the cross. A happy welcome waits for him in the presence of God where he is greeted by his Lord and Master with these words of praise, â€Å"Well done, you good and faithful servant! †¦ Come on in and share my happiness! † (Matt. 25:21).Satan has no control over him any more, for â€Å"Th e poor man died and was carried by the angels to sit beside Abraham at the feast in heaven† (Luke 16:22). â€Å"Then I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Write this: Happy are those who from now on die in the service of the Lord! ‘ ‘Yes indeed! ‘ answers the Spirit. They will enjoy rest from their hard work, because the results of their service go with them† (Rev. 14:13). LAST ADMONITION Dear reader, may God help you to give your heart to Him who loves you, for He is speaking to you now saying, â€Å"turn back to Me with all your heart† (Deut. 30:2).Give Jesus your tired, disappointed, aching heart, and He will give you a new heart and a new mind. Do not be deceived by your deceitful heart or follow its desires, for â€Å"from a person's heart, come the evil ideas which lead him to do immoral things †¦ † (Mark 7:21). Leave your sins and hold onto what is right, â€Å"for sin pays its wage – death; but God's free gift is eternal life in union with Christ Jesus our Lord† (Rom. 6:23). And you who have given your life to God, â€Å"hold firmly to the true words that I taught you, as the example for you to follow, and remain in the faith and love that are ours in union