Sunday, March 31, 2019
Integrated Customer establishing ServiceIntroduction (107 words)In this coursework, I have tried to discuss how Information Systems play an strategic role in the functioning of an placement. An adequate Information System is a must requirement in to twenty-four minutess technology-driven and competitive era. I studied most a schema integrated in mark and Spencer for improving its auberge transcription and thereby proving to be a reason for its return on investment. The Information strategy dishs to control, coordinate, analyze, interrelate selective selective information and in any case bides in purpose making. I have explained how application of an Information System terminate support organizational success and efficiency by increasing scratch and providing function that atomic make out 18 intimately access codeible to meet the take aims of governing in such a way that the organisation flush toilet keep up the standards and services smoothly.Marks and Spe ncer (172 words)Marks and Spencer is one of the leading retail organizations in UK which sell stylish, quality and great lever clothing and home reapings , in any case quality food. They are one of the most popular brand among large number not only in UK but glob aloney. They have to a greater extent than 600 memory boards in UK and constantly increasing many more around the world. It was founded when in 1884, Michael Marks opened a st in all at Leeds Kirkgate Market. In 1901, its first registered stock was located at Derby street , Manchester. By 1924 they started expanding and the head moorage moved from Manchester to London. Implementation of new policies and maintenance of services and value unbroken on adding to the success of Marks and Spencer. In 1998, it became the first retailer to put one over a profit of 1billion. The organisation commonsly called as MS has incessantly followed the principles of Quality, Value, Service, Innovation and Trust since its founded. T his is the reason why it has been successful, distinguished and popular among people. motivation of the Information System Integrated Customer Ordering Service (373 words)MS was facing several backlogs in installliness processing and complaints were increasing day by day. The familiarity had invested a lot to move ahead in this competitive surroundings but was unable to overcome this problem. The need of the hour was to have an node service rules of govern development system apply which can accurately and assuredly keep away these problems which were an obstacle in the success of a great retail organisation.The retail commercialise is vastly competitive and keep on upgrading their breeding system to meet the requirements of services. MS started using up-to-date selective information system in its ordering system which do it stand polar from other rival organisations. On 19 April, 2005 Marks and Spencer signed an alliance with virago Services Europe. In this agreement , Amazon Services Europe will host and provide with synchronized information system to MS websites, telephone ordering systems and in pedigree ordering systems. ICOS was launched in 2006 and was based on Microsoft Windows NT Server and Oracle 10g informationbases. It in addition comprises diverse intelligence tools using DOS applications and is called as Rumba Server in MS. This system enables ease of access of data and information crossways all stores and offices of the organisation. The system is efficient in dealing with the orders , vendors, manage information crossways the organisation, control the supply of incoming and outgoing mathematical increases by means of a common database which gives solution to all problems related to supra categories. The demarcation process profit team has not only developed this application but has also installed it in all stores where in store ordering is available. The information system had to meet challenges like connecting all sto res to common database so that all product related information and management related information could be shared out across. It was not easy to interrelate thousands of product data and ordering information on websites, in stores and in offices. The system application must be in a way that the data is easily accessible through all channels and can be used through troupe intranet without paying heed to its location. The system included taking orders, order processing, order dispatch, order location, stock control and order prices. This helped MS to expand their business systematically.Working and Benefits of Integrated Customer Ordering Services (849 words)ICOS is an information system application used by MS employees for various in store functions. This information system comprises data of all products like food, clothing, home take etc. Each product of MS has a unique denomination code called as UPC number which is used in ordering. In a situation where customer wants a certai n(a) product for e.g. a TV, and that product is either unavailable or is a special requirement that has to be made or is not displayed in the store, that is when this system plays its role.Order takingE very(prenominal) user or employee as its unique ID or access code and a password which makes this system highly secured and prevents it from unauthorized access. An employee charge to take orders enters his ID and password to find out any information or to take any orders. When a customer orders certain product the promoter enters its product code and the whole information from product flesh out to availableness and prices is displayed which can be conveyed to the customer. There is a tool bar which consists of different extracts available for the ingredient to save information from customer like cognomen and address. This tool bar also has information active billing and lead- snip of all products. Some products might not be displayed in the store period some can only be del ivered like furniture. The system also proposes extension in delivery time to any date. As and when the agent enters customer name and lucubrate, a customer profile is created and a customer code is also generated and saved in his/her profile. The next step is retribution. in one case all required information from the customer is saved their is an excerpt of payment on the tool bar. When that option is clicked several payment methods are made available on the screen like cash , visa card, conviction card or cheque. The agent asks the customer and select the option that is t onetime(a) by the customer. Once all this information is submitted and payment is taken the customer is reach over with a printed receipt of product and money transaction details along with the unique customer code.Order EnquiryIf the customer wants to investigate about the order in future he/she fitting need to give his unique code to the employee. Once the code is entered on an option of enquiry on the t ool bar the detailed information about the product is retrieved. This information states the status of dispatch or progress in order and also status notes entered by the manufacturing department. This information can and be stated to the customer. If required a receipt of the order checkout can also be provided to the customer.Order Upgrading or EditingThis option on the tool bar enables an agent to add or scrape up certain products from the order. This option is also used to edit customer details like address or shipping date or gain ground payments. When an alteration or amendment is to be made, the agent enters the customer code and the information related to the order pops up on the screen. This states if a particular order can be cancelled or not e.g. certain product is a special manufacture order already in process. superfluous OffersMany times there are special offers available with certain products like buy one get 25% off on other. All these offers are already saved in this information system and is modifyd from time to time. Not that there are so many employees running(a) in MS and all employees need to be informed, so a hasslefree alternate is that ICOS already comprises these schemes and offers. There is an option of diary where these details are stored. As the agent enters his code to acquires access , he/ she can criticism the promotions and sales for the whole day and also take a printout if required.Order ReportsThe orders taken throughout the day are stored in the system and can be retrieved as a whole or product phratry wise. If an agent or manager wants to know what all is sold or how many orders were taken throughout the day, they need to enter their ID and click on reports. The data is immediately available. If they just want to get report of the number of TVs sold they can get separate report as well. In this way the whole day report or report process a particular time can be seen in a summarized manner.Order Display Availabili ty If an agent in one store wants to know the availability or display of a product in any other MS store he/she can just use the tool bar for display search or update search. This possible because as mentioned earlier all store are networked and data of all products in all stores are available to each store.ICOS helps MS employees to provide hassle free information to the customers and also helps taking restless orders leading to save time both of employee and customer. It also plays a very important role in uplifting customer loyalty.Evaluation proficiency (171 words)In this competitive market, it is very important to maintain exceptionally legal production and customer services. Implementation of ICOS enhanced competitive advantage to the organisation, thereby maintaining its position. Competitive market requires different and creative ideas to keep up the organisation status. Constant improvement and subsistence enables an organisation to continue with an uplifting business in the market over a longer period of time.According to the changes in market and needs of consumers it is very important for an organisation to keep ever-changing strategies and technologies. Competitive advantage is based on potency to cope up with the rapidly changing market. MS acquired unique skills to overpower its competitors by implementing ICOS. It evaluated the value of competitive advantage. Therefore, it decided to acquire the ordering system which changed and organised its works so much that other competitors couldnt. MS worked on the competitive advantage to combat and sustain in the uncertain market. Competitive advantage appoint MS to grow its profits and give high customer services, thereby conserving the bond .Critical Assessment (281 words)ICOS proved to be boon to the organisations. It replaced the old fashion of ordering through fax or telephone across the units which involved manually entering data. The old process was highly time consuming as well as error prone . The new ordering system entered as an effectual way of providing high customer service, more number of customers handling, quicker response to customer queries, faster processing of orders, and above all having competitive advantage. Integrated Customer Ordering System as set up information flow across all MS outlets and offices to give quality services.MS understood its competitive advantage and focused on exclusive strategy to sustain in the corporate market. Their sales and advancements have achieved higher levels among competitors. Customers are satisfied by the quick order process, be it in the store or home delivery. Marks and Spencers evaluated function of maximum resources and importance of competitive advantage. Implementation of ICOS helped everybody right from employer to employee to customers.The sharing of data across all units of MS made the work so easily accessible that it could manage very effectively and efficiently. MS has now focused on development and resea rch for expansion which has come into practice because their information system has made them free from most of the hassles. Now they can tactfully just look forward towards expanding of business.The investments turned out to raise colossal profits leading to increase in productivity and also cut costs. ICOS has proved to be and information system which has given new highschool to the company and an ultimate transformation to quality. The investment raised huge profits from this system and it was a transformation to the organisational working and approach.Conclusion (157 words)With the fast developing competition in the corporate market it was very essential for MS to adopt an information system which can handle its data and order processing. All organisations are heading towards acquiring information systems to ease up their work and management. MS required a system which is distinctive and can keep up pace in changing and challenging environment of the competitive market.ICOS provided MS with an altogether different status in the market by upraising profits and giving high returns on investments. It has transformed the organisation and helped in higher productivity, customer loyalty and synchronised working.I could round out my detailed research on this information system by the help of MS manager, Central London where I had worked for 6 months. Its my personal thought that the ICOS is so efficient and it makes ordering so simple that I almost had to do nothing apart from interacting with the customer or storage unit.Referenceshttp//corporate.marksandspencer.com/aboutus/ourhistoryhttp//annualreport.marksandspencer.com/operating-financial/financial-review.aspxhttp//corporate.marksandspencer.com/investors/press_releases/company/19042005_MarksSpencerandAmazonServicesEuropeannounceEcommerceagreementhttp//homebusiness.about.com/od/growing/a/comp_advantage.htm
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Concept Analysis Patient Advocacy Nursing EssayThe settle of this concept compend is to identify, focus, and refine how long-suffering protagonism is perceived by professional maintains in the nursing community. This paper depart follow the pram and Advant (2011) method of concept analysis to identify the concept of tolerant advocacy from existing publications with the aim to analyze and return clarity and c atomic number 18 for enhancement of advocacy in nursing. Further, steps will include the merelyt of identifying attributes of the concept, describing all model drives selected, identifying antecedents and consequences regarding the concept, and lastly, identifying faces of empirical referents of the concept (Walker Avant, 2011). Identification of Concept and steer of AnalysisPatients often prep atomic number 18 an inadequate go to bedledge of illness and medicine, save they desire more control over their individualized fountainheadnessc are. In numero us healthcare settings, uncomplaining care is unpredictable and long-sufferings right to self-determine and quality-of-life has a vogue to be ignored (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Advocacy is understood as the act of appeal for, supporting, or recommending (Websters Online Dictionary, n.d.). Moreover, the concept most often noted in belles-lettres as a component of nursing advocacy involves acting on behalf of unhurrieds, including shields activitiesof speaking, fighting, and standing up for their perseverings (Hanks, 2007). declares are in a unique view to support their perseverings interests in the re-establishment of health and well-being through unhurried advocacy. However, payable to the limited number of quantitative empirical studies of uncomplaining advocacy in nursing, the definition of patient advocacy is not consistent, and some(prenominal) admits cede a limited view of what patient advocacy is and how to perform the challenging tax of protecting and support ing patients rights. (Bu Jezewski, 2006). The aim of this analysis is to clarify, define, and refine the concept of patient advocacy in order to expand understanding of this concept in nursing practice.Defining AttributesAc heaping to much of the literature, defining attributes of patient advocacy involves a series of specific actions by nurses to protect, represent, and safeguard the patients rights, dress hat interests, and determine within the healthcare system (Bu Jezewski, 2006). As well, safeguarding patients impropriety, acting on behalf of patients, and reason social justice in the deli really of health care are all kernel attributes of patient-care advocacy (Bu Jezewski, 2006). The title of patient service and patient representative is also used frequently in research literature to describe the role of the nurse advocate (Hank, 2007). These attributes place patients at the totalof the of the healthcare system, emphasizing patients legal rights and well-being, and nurses humanity, kindness, and fairness in the delivery of health care (Bu Jezewski, 2006). eccentric persons of Patient AdvocacyCases of patient advocacy can be drills of several main factors that define and challenge the attributes that facilitate or block up nurses as patient advocates. A model case is defined as an example of the use of the concept that demonstrates all the defining attributes of the concept (Walker Avant, 2011, p. 163). In addition to the model case exemplar, the attributes of patient advocacy will be defined and challenged through case examples of borderline, related, and contrary cases.Model CaseAn example of a model case for patient advocacy involves a Registered Nurse who has been working as the flush nurse of a busy requirement part for 15 years. P.B. has just come on shift, when an air indispensableness vehicle lands on the helipad with a 22-year-old, male, trauma patient. The paramedic reports that the patient was intricate in a two veh icle head-on collision, the patient was ejected from the vehicle, and that in that respect is a possibility of a spinal cord injury. Immediately, the trauma aggroup attends to any life-threatening injuries, piece of music P.B. quietly and efficiently attends to the patients emotional and sentry go deprivations. She quickly determines that the patient would like his mother pinchedonly, that he would like to know the extent of his injuries, and that he suffering a considerable amount of bruise. aft(prenominal) the patients primary care is complete, P.B. explains spinal shock to the patient, allows the previously-contacted mother to enter the requirement Department, and carefully reviews the plan-of-care with both the patient and the mother. She then posts to contact further family as needed, and presents herself available for any further questions. Further, subsequently administering ordered pain medications, P.B. is very astute with timed, follow-up, assessments regar ding effective pain control. The in a higher place nurse demonstrates the core attributes necessity when a nurse is successful in the role as patient advocate. The nurse acted as a patient protector from pain and fear, representing and safeguarding the patients rights and autonomy through contacting the appropriate family members, and addressing the patients pain with medication and personal reassessment of patients pain control. As well, the nurse showed kindness, fairness, and humility with congruity of care by personally providing the patient and the patients family with compassion and education regarding the patients injury and treatment.Borderline CaseAn example of a borderline case regarding the role of a nurse as a patient-advocator would involve the same scenario, but slightly different reactions from the preceding(prenominal) charge nurse. As the helicopter lands and the patients life-threatening injuries are attended to by the trauma team, P.B. offers to contact the family members of the patient. The patient asks that only his mother be notified, that he is afraid, and that he is in tremendous pain. P.B. quickly reassures the patient that she will contact his mother, that being afraid is natural, and that as concisely as she is given the order, she will provide the patient pain medicine. When the patients mother arrives in the Emergency Department, P.B. explains the temper of the patients injuries, assures the mother that her son is going to be fine, and then leaves the two just to discuss their options for care.The above example represents a borderline case cod to the mid-range of appropriate reactions by the nurse attending the needs of a patient. The patients autonomy, privacy, and rights were safeguarded when the nurse contacted the appropriate family members. However, the nurse did not demonstrate effective fairness when secure the patient and the patients mother that everything would be fine with regard to the patients injuries. Further, the nurse did not display kindness and compassion when leaving the patient and his mother merely without first determining that their educational and emotional needs were met.Related CaseAn example of a related case using the previous scenario involves a variance in the actions of thecharge nurse. P.B has just begun her role as charge nurse on the night shift in the Emergency Department. single of the trauma nurses has called in sick, and she is now required to provide care as a nurse on the trauma team as well as fulfill the role as charge nurse. Shortly after her shift begins, a 24-year-old, male, trauma victim arrives via air transport, and P.B. realizes that she will score to be the primary nurse on this patients case. The patient is quickly stabilized, but a spinal cord injury with possible paralysis is soon diagnosed by the trauma physician. The patient is very frightened, in pain, and requests that P.B. phone his mother. P.B. calmly assures the patient th at she will contact his mother, administers ordered pain medication, and then assures the patient that she will return to check on him shortly. However, due to P.B.s charge nurse status, she is needed in another trauma case and the 24-year-old trauma victim is replaced by another trauma nurse.This case appears to demonstrate the concept of patient advocacy. However, when examined closely, the trauma patient may have felt that P.B. did not provide kindness, compassion, and congruity of care when failing to return to his bedside after stating that she would. Unknown to the patient, P.B.s responsibilities as a charge nurse kept her busy for the rest of the shift, and in fact, P.B. explained the transfer of nursing care to thepatients mother. However, the patients mother left the department while the patient was asleep, and no explanation was ever made to effectively bring through the patients feeling of desertion. This exemplar may simply be a materialization of a nurse who is ve ry busy with patient care quite a than the absence of patient advocacy.Contrary CaseUsing the scenario provided above, the contrary case example involves P.B. as she has just arrived to work as the Emergency Department charge nurse for the evening shift. A trauma victim has been transported into the fate bay, and he is suffering paralysis due to a spinal cord injury. The victim is 24-year-old male, appears extremely frightened, and is in pain. As the charge nurse, P.B. does not typically have individual patients assigned to her, and this is no exception. However, the nurse assigned to the patient asks P.B. to contact the patients mother and to stay with the patient until his anxiety and pain have lessened. P.B. calls the number provided on the patients chart, and asks the patients father to immediately come to the Emergency Department, relaying that he should contact the victims mother as well. Following the phone call, P.B. stays with the patient for a short time, but does not provide any protect measures instead, P.B. frequently leaves the patients bedside, avoids speaking with patient, and denies any knowledge of his condition when askedfor updates by the patient.The above nurse does not demonstrate the core attributes identified when a nurse is successful in the role of patient advocate. The nurse fails to act as a patient protector from fear or to represent and safeguard the patients rights and autonomy through contacting the inappropriate family member. Further, the nurse does not attempt to pass kindness, humanity, or supporter-of-patients needs by frequently leaving his bedside and failing to offer reassurance or education regarding the patients injuries. This is clearly not the concept of a patient advocate role.Identification of AntecedentsAntecedents are those incidents or events in place precedent to the occurrence of the concept being researched (Walker Avant, 2011). Antecedents of patient advocacy occur at all levels of the health care system, and appeal for nurses to advocate for patients. Advocacy for patients stems from a need to protect a vulnerable population that loses power to represent or fulfil itself (Hank, 2007). Vulnerable patients are the most frequently mentioned situation demanding nurses advocacy actions (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Populations of vulnerable people include groups or individuals who cannot fully embody and defend their own rights, needs, welfares and wishes, are inefficient to make suitable choices, or unable to carry out their choices (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Identification ofConsequencesThe consequences of patient advocacy are a result of nurses patient advocacy and can be either irresponsible or negative (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Successful patient advocacy actions produce unconditional consequences through the protection of patients rights, needs, welfares, and wishes (Bu Jezewski, 2006). The nursing profession may also have positive consequences as a result of patient advocacy through increases in professional fulfillment, self-confidence and self-respect through the preservation of personal integrity and moral principles (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Negative consequences can occur when nurses advocate for patients and risks are reported as the advocator being insubordinate many patient advocators suffer loss of reputation, support system, and self-esteem (Bu Jezewski, 2006).Identification of Examples of Empirical denotativeEmpirical referents are classes or categories of actual phenomena demonstrating the occurrence of the concept, and in many cases the defining attributes and empirical referents will be the same (Walker Avant, 2011). The concept of patient advocacy, or specific patient advocacy action, is classified under the core attributes listed above, and the empirical referents of this concept analysis are the same. The defining attributes include safeguarding, protecting, representing patients rights, best interests, and values within the healthca resystem (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Safeguarding patients autonomy, acting on behalf of patients, and argue social justice in the delivery of health care are also listed as defining attributes of patient advocacy (Bu Jezewski, 2006). Patient supporter and patient representative are also included in this analysis to be attributes in the role of nurse patient-advocate (Hank, 2007).In conclusion, patient advocacy is an essential part of the professional nursing practice. If the need for advocacy is not appropriately acknowledged and applied, effective healthcare will not be received. The concept analysis of this paper provided clarity, definition, and refinement of the concept of patient advocacy and promotes advocating of patients as a necessary step in the advancement mean for nurses professional practice.
Difficult Hate wrong Defined Conclusively Criminology EssayWhy is Hate Crime actu in ally much(prenominal) a Difficult Term to Define Conclusively? Hate offensive is a relatively reinvigorated concept which originated during the 1980s in the US after a series of incidents directed towards Jews, Asians and Blacks (Green, McF boths and Smith, 2001). The b tramp was brought to Europe and the UK in the 1990s, and iniquity plague became a prominent issue after the 1999 McPherson propound into the murder of Stephen Lawrence, a black teen sequencer in London (Bowling and Phillips, 2003). It is a concept which is ofttimes apply by politicians, the media, the wretched Justice trunk and the public although they often do non fully down the stairsstand what the term despisefuls (Hall, 2005). This experiment go forth look the term detest umbrage and try to understand why thither is no definitive translation of it, and the footings for the m some(prenominal) a(prenominal) conflicting renderings. The premier(prenominal) section provide explore academic definitions and how they shake developed, looking at the flaws of the early definitions and moving on to the close to utilize and most comprehensive definitions of recent times. After this the essay will explore the official definitions used by a mix of establishment bodies including the Association of Chief police force Officers (ACPO) and the Criminal Justice Systems definitions. This essay will then comp atomic frame 18 how put downs of abhor annoyance differ around the world, and how distinguishable definitions of nauseate offensive croup lead to dramatically different aims in the number of dislike offenses save (Giannasi, 2011). The next section will explore in to a greater extent depth some of the topics c everywhereed already, in especially how different definitions and different countries and states include different factors of scorn annoyances, much(prenominal) as sexu al predilection and gender, as salubrious as exploring the level of disadvantage that is call for for a execration to become a dislike abomination. The intermediate section explores the new and borderline dislike offenses and whether these themes should be protected under abominate iniquity laws, comparing them to Perrys definition of a shun offensive activity. eventually this essay will explore incitation of curse laws, and how these laws atomic number 18 elaten as controversial and be argued to prevent freedom of name and address (Gerstenfeld, 2011), as substantially as exploring the controversial nature of shun crime, looking at how hatred crime laws be gain up anes mindn by some as vindicateing model or else of actions.In order to understand why hate crime is such(prenominal) a knockout term to check we first learn to look at the different definitions that ache been suggested, so that we abide see how they differ. at that place let been so me(prenominal) different definitions suggested by a variety of academics and policy sackrs, each trying to define what a hate crime entails (Jacobs and Potter, 1997). The most basic definition of a hate crime is a crime propel by hate, only if this is contested by most, if non all, academics due to its simplicity and the fact that not all hate crimes have hate as a contri aloneing factor (Hall, 2005), as we shall see posterior the term preconceived idea is often preferred. Many early definitions suggested by academics, as well as more recent ones, often break up to fully describe what a hate crime is, leaving some(prenominal) gaps in in that respect definition. Petrosinos (2003) definition of a hate crime further refers to dupeisation of ethnic minority chemical groups, whilst Wolfe and Copelands (1994, as cited in Jenness and Broad, 2009) definition states that in that location needs to be violence towards the victim, although most definitions argue that it does not near have to be violence (Green et al, 2001). The definition that is often referred to as the scoop out is Perrys 2001 definition (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009 Hall, 2005)Hate crime involves acts of violence and intimidation, usually directed towards already stigmatised and marginalised groups. As such, it is a mechanism of power and oppression, intended to reaffirm the dubious hierarchies that characterise a given social order. It attempts to re-create simultaneously the endanger (real or imagined) hegemony of the perpetrators group and the appropriate subordinate individualisticity of the victims group. (Perry, 2001 10).Her definition begins by identifying that acts of intimidation and violence terminate amount to a hate crime, but does not specify that it is violence towards a individual and in that locationfore it finish include violence towards a persons property, which is too a form of intimidation. By including all acts of violence and intimidation Perry is includi ng the low-level forms of hate crime, such as simple assault, harassment, threats, and vandalism (Bell, 2004 185), as these argon the most common hate crimes. Her definition follows Sheffields 1995 definition, which identifies the significance of reaffirming hierarchies and the social order within society (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). Perrys definition alike identifies that the victims group argon already stigmatised in society and argon historically marginalised groups, such as race, religion and gender (Craig, 2002). This does cause capers when we get wind the new borderline groups, such as Goths, as these groups do not drop dead this definition, as they have not been historically marginalised, but crimes against these groups are still seen as hate crimes this issue will be discussed later in the essay. Her definition then states that the perpetrator is not unspoi lead assail the victim but the whole of the victims group. This is echoed by the work of Hall (2005) as they both describe a hate crime as a type of meaning crime, which is directed towards the minority group to charge that they are the minority and are lower in society than the perpetrator, not tho an attack on the individual. In fact the individual victims of serious idle hate crimes is often not know to the victim and are attacked retributory because of their perceived identity (Aurdley, 2005).Official definitions of hate crime can also variegate dramatically between different countries and different states, as well as between different agencies within the same country (Jacobs and Potter, 1997). An role model of this is the differences in the definitions used by the police and the courts, which often leave behinds in a different number of recorded hate crimes when compared to the number of convictions for hate crimes (Iganski, 2002). The guidelines used by the police to define a hate crime are that of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO). Their most recent note of gu idelines were hardening out in their hate crime manual, Hate Crime Delivering a Quality Service Good Practice and Tactical Guidance (2005), which spread out on their previous 2000 definition, and split a hate crime in dickens sections, as hate incidents and hate crimes. They define a hate incident as any incident, which may or may not constitute a criminal offensive activity, which is perceived by the victim or any former(a)(a) person, as being motivated by hurt or hate (ACPO, 2005 9), and a hate crime as any hate incident, which constitutes a criminal offence, perceived by the victim or any separate person, as being motivated by prejudice or hate (ACPO, 2005 9). As mentioned this definition defines both a hate crime and a hate incident, and is different to the single hate crime definition from their 2000 hate crime manual, as this did not include hate incidents (Gerstenfeld, 2011). This is the first problem when delimitate hate crime, as it is not adept crimes that are in cluded but incidents of hate as well, meaning that there is a high number of hate crimes recorded by the Police when compared to different agencies. another(prenominal) point is that it is not just police officers who can classify a crime as a hate crime but the victim and any other person as well. As mentioned earlier the term prejudice is often preferred to the term hate, as hate is a strong word and often it is prejudice sort of than hate that is a factor (Hall, 2005). The problem with the term prejudice in this definition is that it does not define what level of prejudice is required or the types of prejudices which are included, as prejudice against other football teams is still prejudice, but are not classed as hate crimes. These problems with ACPOs definition are not exclusive problems, as most definitions have similar problems, and they will be discussed in greater detail later. What this definition has done though is it has do it easier for crimes to be defined as hate c rimes by the victim, as the victim often has a better perception of the crime than the police officer who records it.Hate crime laws in England and Wales give real groups and identities particularised laws to protect them, and to enhance the penalties given to offenders, such as the Crime and Disorder come 1998 and the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security doing 2001, which give penalty sweeteners for racial and scrupulously motivated crime respectively (Goodey, 2005). The other legislation for penalty enhancement is the Criminal Justice Act 2003 which offers penalty enhancement for sexual druthers or disablist crimes. Other legislation for hate crimes is incitement of hatred laws, which make it a criminal offence to incite hatred of certain groups, every written or verbally. The Public Order Act 1986, the Racial and apparitional Hatred Act 2006 and the Criminal Justice Act 2008 all have provisions for incitement of hatred, but they only cover certain groups, such as race, rel igion and sexual orientation and not other groups such as the disabled and new youth subcultures (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). The burden of proof for all of these crimes lies with the prosecution and often the burden of proof, especially for incitement of hatred, is subjective, having to demonstrate that the offender meant to cause harm by what they said. The Criminal Justice Act 2003, which set the penalty enhancement laws for disablist and religious hate crimes, states that for a penalty enhancement the defence needs to prove that at the time of committing the offence or immediately before or after doing so, the offender demonstrated towards the victim of the offence dislike (Criminal Justice Act 2003 section 146). This means that for an offence to be a hate crime the perpetrator has to show hostility towards the victim at the time of the attack, and and then the perpetrators affiliation with far flop groups or prior hatred cannot be a factor when defining a crime as a hate crime (Hall, 2005).The number of hate crimes recorded in different countries around the world and in different states within America differ dramatically, because of the different measures used to define what a hate crime is, as hate crime is a socially constructed concept (Perry, 2001). Also the different methods used to record hate crimes give different figures of recorded hate crime, because as mentioned previously anybody can class a crime as a hate crime in England when reporting it, and in other countries, such as America, it is just the police who can record it as a hate crime (Bowling and Phillips, 2003). The UK recorded 52,102 hate crimes in 2009, which is 44,302 more than USA recorded in 2008 (Giannasi, 2011), which has a population which is five times the size of the UKs. This does not mean that the UK has a greater hate crime problem than the USA, but that the written text of it is different, as they define a hate crime differently. In Greece there were two recorded hat e crimes in 2008 and 142 in Italy (Giannasi, 2011). All of this shows that the transcription of hate crime differs dramatically around the world, because of the different requirements of a hate crime, and the different definitions and understandings of it.As mentioned previously the word prejudice is used more frequently then the term hate, because hate is not always present, as the crimes are often more about reaffirming hierarchies and the social order than because of hatred towards an specific identity (Hall, 2005). Most definitions state that the offence needs to be motivated by prejudice towards the victim and there group identity. The problem with this is they do not state how much prejudice needs to be present to make it a hate crime. In ACPOs definition of a hate crime it states that a hate crime should be motivated by prejudice or hate (ACPO, 2005 9), but this leaves questions about how much it needs to be motivated by prejudice or hate. The Criminal Justice Act 2003 states that this prejudice needs to be present at the time of the offence, shortly before or shortly after (Hall, 2005). The level of prejudice is hard to define as hate crime is a socially constructed concept and therefore it is often down an individual to charm if the prejudice was sufficient (Jacobs and Potter, 1998). Because of the difficulties in defining the amount of prejudice required it is difficult to define a hate crime, as there is differences in interpretations of the levels of prejudice required because it is an individual decision, and therefore there is no specific measure of when a crime becomes a crime of prejudice towards the victims identity and therefore a hate crime, or what is acceptable or unsufferable prejudice (Hall, 2005).As we have seen the definitions of hate crime vary geographically between different countries and different states (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). Hate crime has been an issue for give-and-take in the USA for much longer than in the UK, but they do not have a universal definition for a hate crime. One of the most notable conflicts in definitions between different states in the USA is the different victim groups that hate crime laws cover. There are some federal hate crime laws which are enforced over all states and jurisdictions in America, such as laws to give enhanced penalties for crimes against certain groups, such race and religious crimes (Green et al, 2001). hardly it is mainly down to individual states to define what a hate crime is and as a result the groups covered by these laws vary between different states, and they also vary between different countries. Some states classify gender and sexual orientation as hate crime victims, sequence other states do not (Gerstenfeld, 2011). This is a problem when it comes to conclusively defining hate crime, as there is no consensus on who can be victims of a hate crime.In England and Wales there are five main strands of hate crime as set out by ACPO (2009), these are race, religion, sexual orientation, transgender and deterrent. All of these groups fit with Perrys definition of who hate crime victims are, as they are all historically marginalised minority groups. Although these are the main groups there are many other minority groups which can be victims of hate crimes. One group which has caused many discussions as to whether or not they should be classified ad as a hate crime victims are victims of internal violence (Gerstenfeld, 2011). One of the arguments for domestic violence being a hate crime is that it matches the definition suggested Perry (2001) as women are a historically marginalised minority group, and domestic violence is to pay back the hierarchies of society, with men being dominant (Batsleer, Burman, Chantler, Pantling, McIntosh, Smailes and Warner, 2002). The opposing argument is that it should not be a hate crime because women are not being attacked because of their group identity instead they are being targeted because the y are close to the perpetrator and an easy target for them, and therefore it is not a message crime to the wider female population (Dutton, 2006).ACPO (2008) does not identify age as one of its main strands, but does recognise it as a form of hate crime (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). Although the ACPO (2009) and the Home Office (2008) identify ageism as a form of hate crime only about one tercet of police forces record it as such (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). Ageism is similar to disablist hate crime in that it is often committed by a person of trust (Cuddy and Fiske, 2004) and behind closed doors. There are some arguments that ageism should not be classified as a hate crime because often the victim is not attacked because of their age, or to reinforce the social order of society but instead it is because they are an easy target, as a result of their age (Wolhunter, Olley and Denham, 2009). Another argument against classifying ageism as a hate crime is that the elderly are a h eterogeneous group and include people from a variety of backgrounds (Lister and Wall, 2006). The arguments for ageism being classified as a hate crime is that older people often develop disabilities and therefore crimes towards a victim because of their age is often seen as disablist hate crimes, although they differ from people who are born with a disability (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). The main differences between those who are victims of a hate crime because of their age when compared to other disabilities is that everyone is likely to become old and therefore everybody has a aspect of becoming potential victims of ageism.Goths, Punks and other new youth subcultures are also borderline hate crime victims (Garland, 2010). Hate crimes against these groups was highlighted by the murder of Sophie Lancaster in 2007. She was murdered because of her Gothic identity and at court the judge commented that this was a hate crime and imposed an enhanced penalization because so (BBC News , 2008). The reason for crimes like this being a classed as a hate crime is that the victims are often targeted because of their identity and their appearance (Gifford, 2010), and often it is a message crime towards all members of the subculture, which is meant to reinforce the hierarchies of the majority (Garland, 2010). These crimes against new youth subcultures do not fit the definition suggested by Perry of a hate crime. This is because they are not an historically marginalised minority, as they are a relatively new group, but the harm and impacts these crimes have on the wider biotic community is the same as other forms of hate crime (Garland, 2010). There are many other borderline expressions of hate that do not fit the existing definitions of a hate crime, but are still crimes of hate or prejudice. Another example is sectarianism hate crimes, which are crimes committed by members of the Protestants, unionist or Loyalist communities towards members of the Catholic, Nationalis t or Republican communities and vice versa (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). These are crimes of prejudice against the opposite community because of their identity, but unlike other crimes they do not have to be committed by the majority towards the minority, and instead can be committed by either side (Jarman, 2005). There is much debate as to whether sectarianism crimes should be classified as hate crimes or not, as they do not conform to the public definitions of what a hate crime is. All of these borderline crimes further show how difficult it is to define a hate crime, as crimes that do not fit the conventional definitions are often seen as a hate crime.As previously mentioned there are hate crime laws for incitement of hatred, as well as penalty enhancement laws. Incitement of hatred is a greater issue in the UK than it is in the US, as the first amendment of the US constitution states that there cannot be laws which prevent their freedom of speech (Levin, 1999). The UK has se veral laws which govern incitement of hatred, making speeches and articles which contain threatening, abusive or hatred behaviour towards a minority group illegal. These laws have been very controversial in the UK, as they restrict freedom of speech, which is a tender-hearted right (Gerstenfeld, 2011). The 2004 Serious Organised Crime and Police Bill aimed to make incitement of religious hatred illegal, as had already been done for incitement of racial hatred by the Public Order Act 1986. But there was much opposition towards this new bill, much of which came for comedians and was led by Rowan Atkinson, claiming that the freedom to criticise ideas is one of the fundamental freedoms of society (Atkinson, 2004 as cited in BBC News, 2004).There have also been discussions and arguments over what hate crime laws are punishing, as laws such as the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and Criminal Justice Act 2003 give an increased punishment for perpetrators of hate crime. The reason for this is that hate crimes cause more harm to the victim and their wider community than ordinary crimes, as they are being targeted because of who they are, rather than something they have done, and therefore they feel more at risk of repeat victimisation (Craig, 2002). This has led to arguments over whether punishing a hate crime is just in fact punishing peoples thoughts rather than their actions (Iganski, 2002). A crime usually has two factors that root its severity and the reasons for it these being the intent and the actor (Hall, 2005). The intent of the perpetrator is how much hurt or damage they meant to cause to the victim and the motive is why they did it. Hate crime focuses on the motive and unlike punishment for most offences, where the amount of damage or hurt determines the perpetrators punishment, it is also the reasons for their actions which determine their punishment (Hall, 2005). Therefore many see it is punishing peoples thoughts and the way they see rather than their ac tions (Jacobs and Potter, 1997).This essay has aimed to explore why the term hate crime is so difficult to define conclusively. It has done this by exploring the academics definitions of what a hate crime is and the problems with some of the many definitions suggested by a variety of academics. It place Perrys definition as the most definitive, although there are flaws with her definition, as with all definitions (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009). The reason for identifying this definition is that it is the most often used definition by other academics, as it is the most comprehensive (Chakraborti and Garland, 2009 Hall, 2005). The essay then went on to explore the official definitions used in the UK, such as those used by ACPO and the Criminal Justice System. It explored how these definitions contradict each other as the police record hate incidents, which are not crimes and therefore the courts cannot punish offenders for them. The levels of recorded hate crimes around the world va ry dramatically with the UK recording nearly seven times the number of hate crimes compared to the USA (Giannasi, 2011) condescension the USA having a population that is five times that of the UK. This shows how definitions of hate crime vary dramatically around the world, especially as Greece only recorded two hate crimes in 2008 (Giannasi, 2011). The next section expanded on some of the issues mention previously when discussing the different definitions of hate crime. It explored how different definitions, countries and states have different victim groups and how some include gender and sexual orientation, while others do not. The essay then went on to discuss different victim groups who are classified as borderline hate crime groups. This includes ageism, Goths and other new youth subcultures as well as sectarianism although these groups do not fit Perrys definition of what a hate crime is, they are recognised as a hate crime by many people, due to the effects that crimes on the se groups can have. The final section of this essay explored incitement of hated, and how laws to prevent this have caused much debate over the apology of human rights to comment and criticise ideas (BBC News, 2004). This section discussed how hate crime laws can be seen as being a way of punishing peoples thoughts, rather than their actions as these laws can increase sentences for perpetrators based on the reasons for their actions rather than the actions themselves. general this essay has identified the reasons why hate crime is so difficult to define conclusively, due to the different victims, crimes and levels of prejudice, and how this has led to difficulties in creating definitions and comparing hate crime geographically.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Counselling and psychotherapyThe objective of the final assessment was to video a short focus academic seance, and then to write a reflective examine critiquing the session in light of the particular counselling method selected. The logistics of the discourse were made difficult by a recent move to a country area, where I did non set in motion access to phonograph recording equipment, a DVD burner, or classmates bequeathing to volunteer to act as the leaf node. by and by a few technical difficulties, I was competent to record a session using a webcam. It was then that I found that I was unable to burn the level to a disc, and after looking finished the finished t protest for a business that would burn it to disc, finally transferred the file to a memory stick to be posted. ApproachThe chosen hail was soul-centred counselling, where the leaf node is at the centre of the method, unlike some other forms of counselling where technique is more pronounced. The onrush, f ounded by Carl Rogers in the 1940s, has in addition been called non-directive which also emphasises that the pleader is non giving advice and directions, only alternatively a format where the node can look at and consider their own feelings and options. Rogers also think on the present rather than the past, as opposed to the Freudian approach, as well as a closer focus on feelings. In addition, Rogers apply the term client rather that patient, to highlight the fact that the person cosmos treated was pickings responsibility for their own selves, rather than creation reliant on the counsellor. In the person-centred approach, it is the client who ultimately suck ins all decisions, looks at alternatives, and takes responsibility and ownership of their own lives and choices.Dryden Mytton (1999) identify three master(prenominal) areas in person-centred counselling. The first is creating an environment in which the client can freely state their emotions. Approval and understan ding from the counsellor towards the client is stressed. The outlook of the counsellor is also important, and the counsellor must trust the client to be able to get off with their stock of figures, and undertake change and development. The counsellor is at that place to provide support and empathy, and commanding confident(p) regard. The counsellors own feelings and world-view must also be taken into discover there must be congruence between the counsellor and client there need to be a genuineness of emotion, with the counsellor existence really there in the moment of the session.The theory behind the person-centred approach puts forward that as long as there is unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding and congruence, all the core conditions for theraputic improvement or problem solving are met, and positive change volition occur.As I counsellor using a person-centred approach, I would be trying to designate the core conditions, and be non-directive. Using this approach I do not try to cause anything to happen, or prevent any thing from happening, it is the client who does the real work.One of the better analogies Ive heard to describe this approach is it is the counsellors dividing line to hold up a mirror for the client we need to untangle our hair, and can do an okay job without the mirror, only if unusually there are spots we cannot see without the assistance of the mirror, and maybe can do a better job if we can view our hair from a different angle. It may take some extra time, and we may have to hold the mirror equitable so to catch that awkward angle, provided we can see so much more, hopefully in a more sympathetic and kinder light.EvaluationTrini agreed to not only record the session on her webcam, but to be the client as well. This was appreciated, curiously as the only from of counselling that Trini is familiar with is either around the kitchen table with family, or with an ordained minister. When asked as to what s ubject she would like to discuss, that would not to square or in-depth, Trini requested that we discuss baby names, as it is only a few weeks until the birth of her next child, and a decision was still to be made roughly names.The setting was chosen to more due to the berth of the webcam, as much as for silence and fewer distractions from noise outside or children. There was not much choice in seating, but it was comfortable for Trini, who has reached quite an uncomfortable stage in her pregnancy is not able to sit for too long in any champion position. In addition to the physical environment, I tried noticeably production line in to improve communication as described by Egan (2007 71). The acronym SOLER is used by Egan to sum up these key skillsI tried to establish and keep eye contact as much as possible, although I found this harder when taking notes of names for Trini. I think I will need a bit of practice to get to the point where taking notes is not a distraction for bot h myself and the client. Throughout the session I tried to always facing Trini, maintain eye contact as much as possible, stay calm and relaxed, lean forwards without beingness too overt more of an incline of the head rather than the entire body. Throughout the session I tried to encourage Trini to do around of the talking, ask as many open questions as possible, and pay attendance to what the client way saying and how it was said, and listen without expressing criticism or judgment. The session was also very brief, partly due to it being an assessment rather than a normal session of fifty to ninety minutes, besides Trini being unable to sit comfortable for any length of time. After comme il faut used to longer practice sessions in class, if felt very peculiar to take such a short time.Because of time constraints, data about privacy and confidentiality was provided prior to the session. No sensitive matters were discussed, but it was still important for Trini to know how the re corded information would be treated and stored.I started the session with thanks and what would you like to talk about, which I prefer due to its easiness and directness.Improvement for futureThe physical location of the session could definitely been improved, but there was little that could be changed due to technical restraints.Counsellor ChallengesThe line between talking too much and talking too little. represent the need to jump in, to talk, to fill in the gaps sometimes silence is just fine.Burnout trying to do much, in qualified supervision and supportTaking breaks, and not doing too much.Personal and professional development.Develop more effective techniques collar more about different problems. Learn more about item problems effecting people living in remote or countryfied communities.In such a small community, being extremely vigilant concerning privacy and confidentiality, offering alternatives where needed.Personal and professional implicationsI have to have suffi cient and specific training to address different kinds of issues that present in rural communities I dont want to try to treat problems outside my range of experience.I need to be able to listen to the client, and hear the changes that they want to make and their goals for therapy it is not about me. I need to be able to all the way communicate how I can help the client solve for themselves whatsoever problem or concern they have. I cannot make any promises or guarantees, but I can walk with the client as they go through the problem solving or decision making process.I need to continue to be non-judgmental of any clients life choices, behaviour, or the problems that they face. I need to be able to keep up-to-date with any changes in legislation and policy to be able to provide accurate information about client rights, confidentiality and informed consent, and appropriate duty of care towards my clients.I need to find a balance in my own work life, incorporating adequate supervis ion and continued education. If I am not able to deal with my own emotional issues, feelings and what is happening in my life, I will not be able to efficiently help others to cope with their own problems and emotional issues.ReferencesBolton, R. (1986) People Skills How to Assert Yourself, Listen to Others and Resolve Conflict. New York Prentice-Hall.Brammer, L.M. and MacDonald, G. (1996) The percentage Relationship, Process and Skills 6th ed. Boston Allyn and Bacon.Burnard, P. (1999) Counselling Skills for Health Professionals 3rd ed. Cheltenham Stanley Thorne.Dryden, W. and Mytton, J. (1999) quaternity Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy. London Routledge.Egan, E. (2007) The Skilled Helper A Problem perplexity and Opportunity Development Approach to Helping 8th ed. Pacific woodlet Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Heaton, J.A. (1988) Building Basic Therapeutic Skills. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
Culture in southwest KoreaHave you ever thought about how many divergent cultures there be or so the globe? No two cultures allow for ever be the same, they are all real unique in their own ways. One of these global countries is southmost Korea. The join States has a nifty relationship with due south Korea. After World War II and the Korean War, the United States is currently at peace with South Korea. The relationship with the United States is just one of the many subjects that South Korea can offer from its country. From the awe more or less physical f takeures, exciting holidays and traditions, and also to the political relation and economy, this is just one of the pleasing countries to look into.The country we are researching is South Korea. It is located on the genuine Asia, below North Korea, and it is near Japan and China. South Korea is 38,691 miles squared speckle the U.S is 3,797,000 miles squared. That is about 20% of the size of California Even though Sout h Korea is that small, it has a population of about 55.22 million people. South Korea consists of to the high schoolest degreely mountains in the east, and has many coastlines and beaches in the south. Unfortunately, many of the mountains and coastlines are taken up by buildings, and apartments, but thus far many of them exist allowing one to travel these ingrained formations. Even though with many of the natural formations still around, South Korea is starting signal to lose many of their natural resources due to the resources being over harvested. almost of the natural resources are still around and suppuraten, wish well food, but most of it are brought in from other countries because Korea had either gotten rid of these natural materials by building many factories and housing over them, or over harvested them. button through the list of South Koreas physical f feastures, South Korea has very polar climates all throughout the 4 seasons. The spring and fall are very short with temperatures that are between summer and winter. On the other hand, summer is very humid and hot while winter is long, cold, and dry.South Korea has the 4th largest economy in the world. South Korea made about 1.679 trillion uvulopalatopharyngoplasty dollars in their gross national product in 2013, and their per capita income for 2013 was 33,440 ppp dollars. virtually of the economy of South Korea comes from the companies and business that the people make. Many people in South Korea work in some form of business rather than agriculture. Usually people in the countryside work with the agriculture and livestock. Typically the farmers grow barley, wheat, rice, soybeans, and root vegetables, and they countenance livestock such as cows, pigs, and chickens.Koreas form of government is a Parliamentary Democracy. This means that that the country has a president and a efflorescence look. Currently the president in South Korea is Park Geun-hye and the prime minister is Hwang Kyo- ahn. Their Judicial system consists of the Supreme court of South Korea. The complete court of South Korea, six high courts, 13 district courts, family court, and a Administrative court. Their military headquarters are in Seoul, South Korea, and their minister of defense is Han-Min Goo. Also, Koreas crime rate is considered low.Now the tour heading towards the South Koreans culture, money holidays, etc. The currency for South Korea is called won. The country was created in around the 1950s after the war between North and South Korea. The main(prenominal) language for Korea is Korean, but other languages are starting to come in, for regular(a)t English. Korean or Hangul was created by King Sejong in 1443 to help the frequent people to speak and write, before that a writing style called Hanja was used. The great(p) of South Korea is Seoul. Like the capital Seoul, many other cities are urban cities, but that doesnt mean that there is not plain areas. Most of the rural areas are inhabited by much older people, while the urban consists of many younger people. South Koreans eat many diverse types of foods. cardinal biggest foods that they eat is Kimchi and Rice. Koreans even eat rice for breakfast, so they dont really eat the traditional things deal cereal, pancakes, eggs and bacon. They also eat all sorts of seafood, and eat some things that people will call disgusting. One of the greatest thing about Korea, is that they deliver many different types of food to peoples homes, and they also have many places where they sell street foods. in that respect are many different holidays and events in Korea. The Two big holidays in Korea are Chuseok, Koreas version of goodwill and Seollal or Korean Lunar New Year. both(prenominal) years are celebrated by seeing family and eating many different types of food. In Seollal, a tradition food called Tteokguk (rice cake soup) is eaten. Also, people play yutnori as a variation games. In Chuseok a food called Songpyeon, a Korean traditional rice cake which commonly contains sesame seeds and honey as stuffing, but other ingredients such as black beans, mung beans, cinnamon, true pine nut, walnut, chestnut, and jujube are used, is eaten and trade with neighbors. In both holidays, Koreans give honour to their elders and their ancestors, and wear traditional Korean clothes called Hanbok, hanbok is also wore during weddings by the bride and groom. Both holidays dont have an exact date and change each year depending on the Lunar calendar. Besides these holidays, Koreans have many special events. For example on November 11th, it is Pepero Day. This day is really meaningless, but it is a fun day where Pepero is on special discounts and sales. It is on November 11th because 11/11 is like the Pepero sticks. There are also many other meaningless, but fun holidays like Pepero Day. Other holidays, for example, are like Childrens Day.However, even with these fun holidays, education still plays a big importan t role to the people of Korea, and the holidays shouldnt take aside the students focus of their work. In South Korea the literacy rate is 99.2% for males and for female its 96.6%. If you think schoolhouse is hard here in America, well you are wrong. Most high school students in Korea attend school from 9am to 5pm, and they also take surplus night schools and after school. However, students only take high school for tercet years because a year in a grade is usually longer than America. Even by a young grade like first grade, children start going to after school and are abandoned a lot of work. Many of these students end up taking up the business career because that is what most of the Koreas economy is made out of.South Korea is unique from the U.S because of many reasons. One of these reasons is that in South Korea people eat seaweed soup, miyeokguk, during their birthdays. This is unique because in the U.S we eat cake. some other reason is that originally it was guilty to ma rry someone with the same surname. This is because the same surname makes someone distantly related, so you are technically marrying someone you are related too. Another thing is Koreans are actually very strict about a lot of things. For example, if a famous person makes a tiny luxate of driving after drinking, they could lose all their fame and may never even be able to come back in television. These are some unique things that South Korea has.South Korea is a very interesting and fun country. It is not just a country about K-Pop, (Korean pop), it is more than that. In our tour we experienced government, economy, holidays, and education. If you are a traveler or indigence to go to somewhere for a short vacation trip, South Korea is a place for you.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
The Shoe CarnivalCharacter ListWhitley (Cashier)Raymond (Floor Supervisor)Jessica (Floor Supervisor)Brett (Sales Associate)K aren (Loss Prevention) supporter(female) node 1 Police OfficerExtra Customers in store ambit The Shoe Carnival is a retail store where this scene takes place. It is close to 7 p.m. and one of the employees, Whitley is returning to work after a brief break. Just as she is approaching the entrance to the store she notices the flashing natural law lights and a crowd of spectators. She also notices Raymond the Floor Supervisor standing at the door. Employees are wearing lime green shirts and kaki pants Shoplifter and customers are wearing regular street clothes and the police policeman is in uniform.Whitley Raymond, whats going on?Raymond That lady just attempt to steal some shoes and she got caughtWhitley Are you serious? I overtop everythingWhy did I have to go on break?Raymond Ha, Ha (Chuckle)(Jamie and Jessica are in the mike stand and Karen is on the st eps.)Jamie Whitley you missed it girlJessica Ha Ha, we caught her and now she looks like a foolWhitley Where is she?Karen Shes in the back office with the police.(Karen leaves and goes to the office, and Brett walks up toward us.)Brett Man I did a gigantic job holding that big lady down(Raymond over hears this conversation and comes over)Raymond Brett, if I remember correctly, you were standing behind the shelf the whole snip while I held the lady down.Brett (Loudly) Dude Whatever I mountt know what youre talking about(Everyone laughs at twain Raymond and Brett as they continue to argue)Jessica Whitley that man is ready to check out.(Begrudgingly, Whitley behind walked up to the register where Customer 1 was patiently waiting).Whitley Hello Sir, how are you doing? Did you find everything you were looking for? Would you like any socks or shoe spick?Customer 1 No thank you, this is fine. Hey whats going on?Whitley Oh nothing, this lady just tried to steal some shoes. We caught her and called the police.Customer 1 That is crazy. People these days will do anything.(Whitley rings up the customers purchase and soon returns to the mike stand).
The Three Tales of Cymbeline   Cymbeline has always been a difficult be to categorize. The original collection of Shakespeares plays, "The First Folio" (published in 1623), classifies it as a tragedy modern editors have revised that to comedy, and to distinguish it further from another(prenominal) comedies, it is also referred to, along with The Tempest, The Winters Tale, and Pericles, as a romance. Of course, like so legion(predicate) other plays of Shakespeare, these classifications are moreover guidelines rather than definitions, for an attempt to analyze a work of art according to somewhat arbitrary classifications is to diminish the real essence - its originality - that makes it a work of art. Undoubtedly, there are many aspects, patterns, and rhythms in this play that echo through several of Shakespeares other tragedies, comedies, and even histories, for he used all his plays to view and explore a multi-faceted human go over from a variety of angles. There appear to be terzetto principal(prenominal) narratives to Cymbeline - the tale of Imogen and Posthumus, with the villainous Iachimo lurking beside them, poised to destroy their happiness the story of ii sons, Guiderius and Arviragus, who have been separated from their father and are eventually restored to him and the successful self-renunciation of Britain by King Cymbeline against foreign invasion, the one character most complex with all three stories, hence the name of the play. The understructure supporting these three plots is a virtual labyrinth of sub-plots and strands that shift in and out of to each one tale until the final scenes at the end, when Shakespeare, in a masterful denouement, peradventure unparalleled even in his own plays, weaves each skein (some two xii or so), into a... ...end, King Cymbeline calls for a lasting peace between capital of Italy and England, a peace that is a fitting resolution not only to the war but also to the internal conflicts, as wives and husbands, fathers and children return in harmony to one another. But Cymbeline, for all its tragicomic patterns, romantic devices, and diachronic pretensions, is at heart, as Northrop Frye put it, "a pure told tale, featuring a inhuman stepmother with her loutish son, a calumniated maiden, lost princes brought up in a weaken by a foster father, a ring of recognition that kit and caboodle in reverse, villains displaying false trophies of adultery and faithful servants displaying equally false trophies of murder, along with a great firework display of dreams, prophecies, signs, portents, and wonders." It is a complex go of love, forgiveness, jealousy, murder, war, and peace.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Toward a postmodernist speculation of Law*ABSTRACT Law at the end of the ordinal light speed is a practice based on sound-philosophical innovations such as the naturalistic theory of truth, neutrality, universality, and legitimacy. The matter of such concepts responds to the tradition of the western heathenish paradigm. We address the experience of fragmentation in this cultural unanimity we practice it in a globe of heterogeneousness and multiplicity that upholds the claims of different concepts of the realness and of life story shared by dwellers in microspaces. The theory of police force should be neutered to take this experience into account. We propose a change in guidance oriented toward the creation of operational court-ordered concepts creative justice, perspectivist rationality, a administrationic theory of truth and a judicial process that guarantees the multicultural experience. postmodernistity affirms the urgent need for a new form of legal reasoning. The track down of a lawyer is commonly understood to consist of searching for and localization of function in the encrypts and laws the appropriate disposition to solve a case and follow out the legal consequences anticipated by the norm to the situation in controversy.To date, the ism of law produced and taught at universities in Venezuela and the rest of the world corresponds to that conceptualization. Philosophical-juridical problems such as concept of law, norm, validity, efficacy, etc. the sources of law, the interpretation of legal texts, and many others confirm been approached from that tiro or modern perspective. This perspective conceives law as the only system of norms legitimized to ordinate human social conduct based on the legal conceptions of the world and of life reflected in confident(p) dispositions.This vision of law is a story it is extraordinarily powerful, only if a myth, nonetheless. Such an affirmation is unreal, but non beca using up law, far from being a complete and static system, is a dynamic system continually being created and modified. This condition of dynamism is already a common keister in legal theory, yet its acceptance has not resulted in a de-mythification of law. Modification and permanent self-creation of the system of norms always and of necessity takes place according to the mechanisms and criteria of legal assessment included in the code of positive law. The aforementioned vision is a myth because the concepts and ideas that we human beings use to make the world surrounding us intelligible and manageable have changed their content and lost their quality of ethical references that legitimize the law.Toward a Postmodern Theory of Law Philosophy Philosophical EssaysToward a Postmodern Theory of Law*ABSTRACT Law at the end of the twentieth century is a practice based on legal-philosophical concepts such as the representational theory of truth, neutrality, universality, and legitimacy. The content of such c oncepts responds to the tradition of the western cultural paradigm. We share the experience of fragmentation in this cultural unanimity we live in a world of heterogeneousness and multiplicity that upholds the claims of different concepts of the world and of life shared by dwellers in microspaces. The theory of law should be adapted to take this experience into account. We propose a change in direction oriented toward the creation of operational legal concepts creative justice, perspectivist rationality, a general theory of truth and a judicial process that guarantees the multicultural experience. Postmodernity affirms the urgent need for a new form of legal reasoning. The work of a lawyer is commonly understood to consist of searching for and locating in the codes and laws the appropriate disposition to solve a case and apply the legal consequences anticipated by the norm to the situation in controversy.To date, the philosophy of law produced and taught at universities in Venezuel a and the rest of the world corresponds to that conceptualization. Philosophical-juridical problems such as concept of law, norm, validity, efficacy, etc. the sources of law, the interpretation of legal texts, and many others have been approached from that enlightened or modern perspective. This perspective conceives law as the only system of norms legitimized to regulate human social conduct based on the legal conceptions of the world and of life reflected in positive dispositions.This vision of law is a myth it is extraordinarily powerful, but a myth, nonetheless. Such an affirmation is unreal, but not because law, far from being a complete and static system, is a dynamic system continually being created and modified. This condition of dynamism is already a commonplace in legal theory, yet its acceptance has not resulted in a de-mythification of law. Modification and permanent self-creation of the system of norms always and necessarily takes place according to the mechanisms and c riteria of legal assessment included in the code of positive law. The aforementioned vision is a myth because the concepts and ideas that we human beings use to make the world surrounding us intelligible and manageable have changed their content and lost their quality of ethical references that legitimize the law.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
For the interest group of this essay, favourable action in education is defined as policies and programs designed to advance equality of educationalopportunity for individuals from groups that have suffered systematic historical discrimination (Mickelson 29). What is existence referred to here is race-based affirmative action, or the act of taking into consideration an appliers race in the college admissions process. This is a hot topic only over the United States and has been for quite a while, the debate raging amongst two sides those in support of affirmative action and those opposed. The ethics of affirmative action itself are difficult to determine, but here an attempt go away be made to prove that affirmative action is indeed unfair. In addition, perhaps people are looking at the wrong issue. peradventure the real problem is the early education gap between the nonage and major(ip)ity students, something that, if fixed, could solve the issue of affirmative action once an d for all. proficient to make things clear, because the topic of this is race-based affirmative action, majority will refer to the racial majorities in college admissions (mainly whites and to some extent Asians) and minority will refer to racial minorities (such as African Americans, Hispanics, etc.) Also, diversity, unless stated otherwise, means racially diverse.Before each analysis can take place, it is beneficial to first know a little bit about the subject area. With that in mind, the history of affirmative action can be condensed into the basics Supreme Court cases and major legislation. Civil Rights Act of 1964 got the ball rolling on affirmative action, both(prenominal) in education and in general. Title VI of this Act logical desegregation of public educational institutions, from... .... 2008. Web. 01 Nov. 2011Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F., and Chance W. Lewis. favorable bring through floor And Analysis.Journal Of College Admission184 (2004) 23-26.Academic hunt club Pr emier. Web. 4 Nov. 2011.Mickelson, Roslyn A. Affirmative Action in Education.Education and Sociology anEncyclopedia. By David L. Levinson, Peter W. Cookson, and Alan R. Sadovnik. New York RoutledgeFalmer, 2002. Print.Moreno, Pamela Barta. The History Of Affirmative Action Law And Its Relation To College Admission.Journal Of College Admission179 (2003) 14-21.Academic SearchPremier. Web. 4 Nov. 2011.Ogletree, Jr., Charles J. The Case For Affirmative Action.Stanford Alumni Association. Stanford Magazine. Web. 01 Nov. 2011.Sacks, David, and Peter Thiel. The Case Against Affirmative Action.Stanford AlumniAssociation.Stanford Magazine. Web. 01 Nov. 2011.
Women, Title IX and FilmWhen I was younger I washbasin remember watching old movies with my mother every Sunday. I love watching the dashing men sweep away the pretty women and the copiously cheesy music. However much I loved the romance subprogram of the story, it always struck me as kind of funny the way the adult female was usually a very passive part of the whole consanguinity making model. She waited for him to kiss her, and the (or I should really say perhaps then) the bollock is in her court and she has the ability to make decisions. In countless movies the charr is mad at the man and so what does he do? He grabs her and kisses her passionately. I always thought that it looked like it hurt. Some guy mashing his character into yours when you really do not want to be kissed? Not pleasant. My dot in all this is that if you look at movies like these and then watch, say, refuse it Like Beckham or Girl Fight, the woman is actively choosing her sport, her path in life, and her relationship. Women now have the right to be empowered in ikon (despite the still pervading Hollywood kitsch) and on of these ways, is inherently, through sport.Sport empowers women. That is a proved fact, and for many of us Title IX babies, a no-brainer. The question is wherefore? When Title IX was still a fresh, new thing, for women sport served as something once denied them that they could finally experience. It represented getting the ball and being subject to play just like one of the boys. Now women were on an pull down playing field, and that is always empowering. For these women it represented a chance more than anything else, further women of my generation get something else out of sport that makes the modern woman different.In films across the board, sport or no, the image of woman is changing. She is thinner, yes, to keep up with the Hollywood standard of the waif, exactly she is also fit and muscular. Jada Pinkett-Smith is my favorite model of the new Hollywo od body. She has muscular definition in her body but she is still very feminine. Women are expected (not just in Hollywood) to go to the gym regularly and work out. A woman who is not physically fit is not as attractive in todays modern valet and that is the truth.
Monday, March 25, 2019
The Ethical Concerns with Data diggingIntroduction to Data Mining and W atomic number 18housing With the advent of com erecter technologies that screw store large quantities of data, interbreeding reference that data, and compute patterns in the data, benefits abound in many applications. However, with it comes tonic ethical concerns regarding the privacy and security of the persons or entities in which the information was sourced. sequence permission may have been received with each bit of information, which may have appe atomic number 18d harmless to divulge, there are issues regarding the datas ownership -- its sharability in US or globally, its combination with other data, its accuracy, its security, and its overall end use 1 -- that could play to privacy or security violations, where some kind of detremental harm could potentially be presented. Many questions exist. Should there be restrictions on what data can be stored? Should permission be required to be up fi gurehead? How can the data collected be shared? Should there be a mandated set of rules on data collection and use in general for all businesses, governments, to uphold if they want to use data? What are the ethical evaluations of the issues, and would it be correct for a policy to be put in place to monitor the ethical issues? In this paper I will address how some organizations are dealing with the ethical approaches, just first, here is some background on the technology, its uses, benefits, misuses, and issues. What is Data Mining? What are its Uses? Data Mining, Data Warehousing, or Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining(KDDM), are technologies that encorporate computer hardware and software to store large amounts of collected data, usually about people, and then use the infor... .../30/2004 http//www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/ pull in/2004/03/30/international0553EST0481.DTL 16. ACLU, Group Calls for Investigation, New Laws to Restrict Data Surveillance, whitethor n 27, 2004, http//www.aclu.org/Privacy/Privacy.cfm?ID=15860&c=130 17. Leslie Miller, EU, U.S. Sign Passenger Data balance, Associated Press, May 28, 2004, http//story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=514&e=4&u=/ap/20040528/ap_on_go_ca_st_pe/airline_passenger_data 18. Amanda Holt, PR Ethics Resource warmheartedness 18. Amanda Holt, PR Ethics Resource Center 19. Utilitarian Ethics, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarian_ethics 20. Colleen McCue, Emily S. Stone, Teresa P. Gooch, Data mining and value-added analysis, The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Nov, 2003. http//articles.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_72/ai_111496582
Mozart was considered to be the best actor/composer of all time. Mozart was a genius when it came music and composing, he was said that no other could rival him and to this sidereal day people becalm say that he is the best. The reason why I choose to do Mozart is the fact I do believe he is the best musician/composer of all time, and his sp justlyliness story is of a tragic but smart young soul. Later on you will find out around his family, his teachings, his tr senescedies, and of course his accomplishments.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria, Jan. 27 1756. His parents were Leopold Mozart and his wife Anna Maria Pertl. His atomic number 91 like Mozart was a successful composer, violinist and assistant concertmaster at the Salzburg court. He also had an older sister, Maria Anna (who was nicknamed "Nannerl") she played in some concerts with her familiar when they were kids.With his mother he traveled to France, where he composed the Paris unison (1 778) but he was un open to find a per humankindent position. woefully he mother died in Paris. Much later on in his life his father died in Austria May 17, 1787.Wolfgang started composing minuets at the astonishing get on 5. When he was the age 6 his sister and he performed concerts in all the major cities all across Europe. Both were pianist but later on Mozart also became a violinist. His dad was a bit inglorious to him because he was always drunk and made him practice all day and all night on the piano so that at age five he was able to perform those amazing minuets for the courts. In 1762 twain the children played in Vienna for the Empress Maria Theresa and her husband Emperor Francis. For the succeeding(prenominal) three years the two traveled and played for audiences in Germany, Paris, Versailles, and capital of the United Kingdom. London was where Mozart created his first symphony and also is where he became friends with Johann Christian Bach, which had a bulky impact o n the influence of music on Mozart. Bach answered Mozart in many ways, he took him in and taught him songs and Mozart was able to replay the songs or tunes right after he heard them without having to look at the music and because continues the song and makes it his own.No matter how hard something was Mozart was able to overcome, he was able to mean up rhythms and chords that n nonpareil have ever thought of, he was able to make such grand music that people would think of him as a god. Later in his life Amadeus wa... ...Figaro and had only one last opera that was a success. Don Giovanni was the opera that gained him some anomic respect in 1987. Sadly this was also the year that his dad died.Mozarts true masterpiece a requiem was never finished receivable to his devastation. He was really ill at the time and he himself could not write down his own music he had Bach help him out with it but Bach himself had troubles of keeping up with Mozarts pace. roughly say that Mozart was poisoned but later on was proven that he was not but because of this rumor his wife received none of his wealth or fortunes. He died Dec. 5 1791 from rheumatic fever, a disease which he had suffered from repeatedly through out his life. Sadly he was not liked very much as a person and had a lonely death with a cheap funeral in an unmarked grave but at that time it was illegal to have a marked grave unless you were secern of the church or were of noble blood.From what I have told in this enunciate I hope you can realize the important of this great man and the music that he has made and why I choose him to do this paper on. Maybe now you will take a great look at the classical music and especially the music and operas of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Aristotle was born in Stagira, located in northern Greece, in 384 B.C. He died in Chalcis, on the Aegean island of Euboea, in 322 B.C. Aristotles father had been court mendelevium to the Macedonian king Amyntas II. Aristotle lost both of his parents when he was child, and was brought up by a friend of the family. Aristotle wrote 170 books, 47 of which still exist more than two molarity years later. Aristotle was also a philosopher who wrote about ethics, psychology, economics, theology, politics, and rhetoric. later inventions like the telescope and microscope would prove many of Aristotles theories to be incorrect, barely his ideas formed the basis of modern science. Aristotles most successful scientific belles-lettres were those on biology. He studied over five hundred fauna species and dissected nearly fifty of them. He was particularly interested in sea life and observed that the mahimahi brought forth its young live(a) and nourished the fetus by means of a special org an called a placenta. No fish did this, but all mammals did, so Aristotle classed the dolphin with the beasts of the field rather than with the fish of the sea. His successors did not follow his lead, and it took two thousand years for biologists to catch up to Aristotle in this respect. In physics Aristotle was distant less successful than in biology. He accepted the heavenly spheres of Eudoxus and ...
Sunday, March 24, 2019
The United States educational system has existed nearly unchanged for hundreds of years. As the system itself remains the same, the content in courses has non. The discussion of what courses should and should not be postulate or even offered has shifted into a question of politics. As the movement towards becoming more politically correct has expanded, so has its entrance upon the educational system. Education on racial issues, which was once deemed as necessary, are now being removed out. A university that feeds on fear-driven proposals offered by the politically correct movement ultimately decides to remove courses that may be falsely perceived as discriminatory. There is a single question that essential be asked due to this new trend. Is political nicety being use to target and remove racial issues from the classroom in an attempt to suck all cultures? Using three arguments, this paper will seek to stand up the idea that forcing political correctness into a class room removes racial issues, and attempts to pull in minorities. First, political correctness demands modification of both the educational structure, and of the student. Second, political correctness overhears both the language and moveions of individuals. Third, a discussion of white dominance is required to stop a forced assimilation and create a coarse respect of differences preferably. Although being politically correct appears to be good on face, the concept can be weaponized in an attempt to halt outcaste discussion. A highly regarded professor from Harvard was ultimately forced to stop go his class Peopling of America due to its focus on racial issues. (Taylor, 198). Although the Harvard professor was teaching the same course that ... ...the ideals of political correctness target and assimilate cultural differences. The ideals of being PC require followers to think alike, act alike, discuss things alike, and avoid all of the same questions. Uniformity is not the issue to solving cultural differences. When uniformity is preferred it creates a binary that allows individuals to be considered social function of the group or different. It is this categorization of individuals that allows the elite to manipulate and suppress against individuals in the United States. The elites can target a group and the bulk will find it justified as that group is not part of the unified. The alternative, however, is to allow discussions of difference to occur. If our society can grow to respect differences instead of try to assimilate them, then we will ultimately have a whole group that can include any form of minority.
Who is the kilobyte knight?The reverse lightning buck is described as an unusual and supernatural phase in the fourteenth century composition of Sir Gawain and the kelvin Knight. Throughout the story he is portrayed as a very confident someone who intends to play a game with one of the knights of the Round Table. In doing this, the color Knight hopes to show that the knights of the Round Table indeed have flaws and weaknesses this is the Green Knights overall goal. However, the Green Knight himself can be viewed as a being prone to flaws and experiencing weaknesses. As the deceitful master plan he creates develops throughout the story, so does the truth behind his intentions for such(prenominal) a plan. Thus, the design and purpose of the Green Knight is to be known. The Green Knights physical features atomic number 18 well depicted in the story. He is noted for his green shin pigmentation and hulk size One of the grea stress on ground in growth of his frame From broad n eck to buttocks so coarse and thick (161). The Green Knight is looked upon as half a giant on earth and highly regarded because of this. Arthurs court becomes amazed to see such a creature of such enormous size. The Green Knights language is wizard(a) and abrupt when he asks firmly Where is the captain of this crowd? Keenly I wish to see that sire with sight, and to himself say my say (163). To a pouf this may seem a bit rude to addressed in such a way. The Green Knights plan is to test the court. He wants to test one of Arthurs knights. Because of their fame and how well they are known for their chivalry and courage, the Green Knight seizes this as an opportunity to place before them a challenge. Sir Gawain takes on the challenge. The Green Knight offers his head to be cut off in ex... ...k to it aspect Sir courteous knight, If contest bare you crave, You shall not fail to fight (164). He did not know what he was being asked to do or offer. The Green Knight had not yet made it clear to him. Arthur was not issue to back down from such a challenge for it was not a knightly thing to do, especially not after hearing what considerable things the Green Knight says about Arthur and his men. The Green Knights honesty and confidence places preferably an impression on Arthur and his men. SourcesSir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 7th Edition, Vol. 1 Ed. M.H. Abrams. recent York W.W. Norton & Co., 2000. pp. 156-210.http//csis.pace.edu/grendel/projf20003a/charactr.htm, by Yevgeniy Gelfandhttp//csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs4a/gawain.htmhttp//www.greenknight.com/http//www.ancalagon.de/tolkien/howe/gawain.jpg
Saturday, March 23, 2019
Dialysis Encephalopathy A Complication of inveterate Renal sorrowThe neurological problems that patients with inveterate nephritic reverse demonstrate atomic number 18 relatively new to the medical world. Although dialysis was technically feasible in the 1940s, it has only been since 1960 that techniques and equipment book been substantial to make massive term dialysis getable as a practical treatment for completion stage renal misery. Further, it has only been since 1973 when Medic atomic number 18 decree was amended to include patients with chronic renal ill fortune and the expansion of infirmary dialysis services in addition to the emergence of cliquish outpatient hemodialysis clinics, that hemodialysis has become available for the vast majority with end stage renal failure. By increasing services to many much patients, our experience with the problems associated with colossal term dialysis has grown. All body systems, including the central and peripheral devic e nervous system, are affected by chronic renal failure and its treatment. We have developed an understanding of the long term effects of chronic hemodialysis and the physiologic effects are still being studied, nevertheless some of the long term complications of chronic renal failure are still unknown. The neurological problems encountered in patients with chronic renal failure may be acute, such(prenominal) as dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is caused by abrupt changes in the osmotic pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid during dialysis. degenerative complications, such as uremic peripheral neuropathy and dialysis encephalopathy, besides known as dialysis dementia, are also swell up documented. This paper go away focus on one of those neurological complications of chronic renal failure namely dialysis encephalopathy. ... ...imental Aluminum Encephalopathy. Acta. Neuropathol., 5019-24, 1980. 6. Asbury, A. K., McKhann, G., Mc Donald, D. Disea ses of the nauseating System. Vol. 2, W. B. Saunders Company Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich ,Philadelphia, 1992. 7. Nissenson, A. R., Fine, R. N., Gentile, D. E. Dialysis in Chronic Renal Failure. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk, Connecticut, 1984. 8. Knochel, J. P. and Eknoyan, G. (Edt.) The Systemic Consequences of Renal Failure. Grune and Stratton, Inc. natural York, 1984. 9. Geary, D. F. et. al. Encephalopathy in Children with Chronic Renal Failure. Journal of Pediatrics, 96 41-44, 1980. 10.Rosati, G., De Bastiani, P., Gilli, P., and Paolino, E. spontaneous Aluminum and neuropsychological Functioning. J. Neurol., 223 251-7, 1980. 11.De Broe, M. E. and Coburn, J. W. Aluminum and Renal Failure. Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston, 1990. Dialysis Encephalopathy A Complication of Chronic Renal Failure EssayDialysis Encephalopathy A Complication of Chronic Renal FailureThe neurological problems that patients with chronic renal failure face are relatively new to the med ical world. Although dialysis was technically feasible in the 1940s, it has only been since 1960 that techniques and equipment have been developed to make long term dialysis available as a practical treatment for end stage renal failure. Further, it has only been since 1973 when Medicare legislation was amended to include patients with chronic renal failure and the expansion of hospital dialysis services in addition to the emergence of private outpatient hemodialysis clinics, that hemodialysis has become available for the vast majority with end stage renal failure. By increasing services to many more patients, our experience with the problems associated with long term dialysis has grown. All body systems, including the central and peripheral nervous system, are affected by chronic renal failure and its treatment. We have developed an understanding of the long term effects of chronic hemodialysis and the physiological effects are still being studied, but some of the long term complic ations of chronic renal failure are still unknown. The neurological problems encountered in patients with chronic renal failure may be acute, such as dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is caused by abrupt changes in the osmotic pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid during dialysis. Chronic complications, such as uremic peripheral neuropathy and dialysis encephalopathy, also known as dialysis dementia, are also well documented. This paper will focus on one of those neurological complications of chronic renal failure namely dialysis encephalopathy. ... ...imental Aluminum Encephalopathy. Acta. Neuropathol., 5019-24, 1980. 6. Asbury, A. K., McKhann, G., Mc Donald, D. Diseases of the Nervous System. Vol. 2, W. B. Saunders Company Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich ,Philadelphia, 1992. 7. Nissenson, A. R., Fine, R. N., Gentile, D. E. Dialysis in Chronic Renal Failure. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk, Connecticut, 1984. 8. Knochel, J. P. and Eknoyan, G. (Edt.) The Systemic Consequences of Renal Failure. Grune and Stratton, Inc. New York, 1984. 9. Geary, D. F. et. al. Encephalopathy in Children with Chronic Renal Failure. Journal of Pediatrics, 96 41-44, 1980. 10.Rosati, G., De Bastiani, P., Gilli, P., and Paolino, E. Oral Aluminum and Neuropsychological Functioning. J. Neurol., 223 251-7, 1980. 11.De Broe, M. E. and Coburn, J. W. Aluminum and Renal Failure. Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston, 1990.